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CV262: Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) ITS Standards for Project Managers
Table of Contents
Introduction/Purpose - 2
Learning Objectives - 2
Reference to Other Standards - 3
Glossary - 4
Acronyms - 7
Supplemental Figures - 8
References - 9
Study Questions - 10
This module is an introduction to the connected vehicle environment, with a focus on a standards-based vehicle-to-vehicle communications. The I101 module, Using ITS Standards - An Overview, is a recommended prerequisite for participants. A companion module is CV261, Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) ITS Standards for Project Managers, which focuses on standards-based vehicle-to-infrastructure communications.
The connected vehicle environment has the potential to transform surface transportation systems such that vehicular crashes will be significantly reduced, operators of the surface transportation systems will have access to more accurate system performance data, travelers will have access to specific traveler information, and will the connected vehicle allow the surface transportation systems to be optimized to minimize environmental impacts.
This module provides an introduction to the connected vehicle environment, a description of the vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) environment, and its potential benefits to the operators of surface transportation systems. The module presents several V2V safety, mobility, and environmental applications and discusses how these applications impact surface transportation operations. It also reviews the types of information that may be exchanged between the connected devices that make up the V2V environment.
The module then presents the ITS Standards that help support the deployment of the V2V environment and V2V applications. The module also introduces some of the challenges to implementing the V2V environment and how surface transportation systems can support the V2V environment.
It is essential that agencies use standards in deploying connected vehicle technologies to maximize the benefits from the connected vehicle environment. By taking this module course (?), participants will learn what connected vehicle standards exist, where to find the standards, and how to use the connected vehicle standards to procure, implement, and operate standards-based devices and equipment. Deploying these connected vehicle standards will support interoperability, minimize future integration costs, make procurements easier, and facilitate regional and national interoperability.
2. Learning Objectives
3. Reference to Other Standards
|Access Layer||See SubNet Layer|
|Application||An application process providing application entity functionality as defined by the ITS reference architecture.|
|Application Entity||The portion of the ITS station reference architecture that provides domain-related functionality (i.e., not merely support functionality such as management or security processes).|
|Application Process||The concept of a piece of software that processes inputs for a specific use or purpose. Application processes can exist within the management, application, or security entities of the ITS Station Architecture. For example, a word processor is an application process within the application entity whereas MS Word is an "implementation" of the word processor application. Logic that can select between the use of a Wi-Fi and Ethernet connection would be an example of an application process within the management entity.|
|Architecture Reference for Cooperative and Intelligent Transportation (ARC-IT)||A USDOT-developed common framework for planning, defining, and integrating intelligent transportation systems. It is a mature product that reflects the contributions of a broad cross-section of the ITS community (transportation practitioners, systems engineers, system developers, technology specialists, consultants, etc.).|
|Basic Safety Message (BSM)||The message containing the core data set transmitted by the connected vehicle for safety-related purposes (vehicle size, position, speed, heading acceleration, brake system status). The message includes an optional extension that can report additional data depending upon events (e.g., anti-lock brakes activated) but the availability of types of extension data varies by vehicle model. The BSM is tailored for low latency; localized broadcast required by V2V safety applications but can be used with many other types of applications.|
|Cellular Vehicle-to-Anything||A form of DSRC based on 3GPP LTE technology.|
|Connected Device||Any device used to transmit or receive messages from another device. Within the scope of V2X, we specifically mean those connected devices that are a part of an ITS trust domain, thereby allowing them to transmit and receive messages with other ITS-trusted connected devices. Within the scope of this course (V2V and V2P), we specifically mean those connected devices that are a part of the ITS trust domain established by the SCMS, thereby allowing them to transmit and receive messages with SCMS-trusted connected devices A connected device can be sub-categorized as an OBU or RSU.|
|Connected Vehicle (CV)||A vehicle containing an OBU|
|Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC)||
The use of non-voice radio techniques to transfer data over short distances between roadside and mobile radio units, between mobile units, and between portable and mobile units to perform operations related to the improvement of traffic flow, traffic safety and other intelligent transportation service applications in a variety of public and commercial environments. [FCC, Dedicated Short Range Communications of Intelligent Transportation Services - Final Rule, FR Doc No: 99-30591]
A technology for the transmission of information between multiple vehicles (V2V) and between vehicles and the transportation infrastructure (V2I) using wireless technologies.
|Facilities Layer||The portion of an ITS station communications stack that structures data, manages sessions, and encodes data for application processes|
|Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)||Systems that apply data processing and data communications to surface transportation, to increase safety, efficiency, and sustainability. ITS systems will often integrate components and users from many domains, both public and private.|
|ITS Station (ITS-S) reference architecture||A reference model to describe how application processes within a device are able to communicate to other devices. The model is defined in ISO 21217 and is based on the ISO Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) Reference Model (ISO 7498-1), but simplifies the OSI model by grouping some layers together and extends the OSI model to explicitly defining the management, application, and security entities that drive communications and provide support functionality to the basic OSI stack.|
|Interoperability||Degree to which two or more systems, products or components can exchange information and use the information that has been exchanged. [ISO 24765:2017]|
|Latency||A measure of time delay experienced in a system, the precise definition of which depends on the system and the time being measured. For a data element in this context, latency is the time difference between the time that data value is acquired by the source and the time the message is transmitted.|
|Management Entity||The portion of an ITS station that manages the configuration of the device|
|Network and Transport Layer||The portion of an ITS station communications stack that is responsible for communicating between a source and destination device|
|On-Board Equipment (OBE)||This term refers to the complement of equipment located in the vehicle for supporting the vehicle side of the applications. It is likely to include the DSRC radios, other radio equipment, message processing, driver interface, and other applications to support the use cases described herein. It is also referred to as the Vehicle ITS Station. When referring to the DSRC radio alone, the correct term is OBU (see below).|
|On-Board Unit (OBU)||A vehicle-mounted device used to transmit and receive a variety of message traffic to and from other connected devices (other OBUs and RSUs). Among the message types and applications supported by this device are vehicle safety messages, a primary subject of this standard, used to exchange information on each vehicle's dynamic movements for coordination and safety.|
|Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM)||An original equipment manufacturer refers to the entity that originally manufactures an item that may be branded and sold by others. In the Connected Vehicle Environment, it is commonly used to refer to those who provide components to the automobile manufacturers.|
|Security Certificate Management System (SCMS)||A public key infrastructure (PKI) approach to security involving the management of digital certificates that are used to sign and authenticate messages that are exchanged among connected devices that might have no direct relationship with each other.|
|Vehicle||A self-propelled transport device, along with any attachments (e.g., trailers), that is a legal user of the transportation network.|
|Security Entity||The portion of an ITS station that provides security services to the other parts of the ITS station|
|SubNet Layer||The portion of an ITS station communications stack that is responsible for communications over one communications link|
|Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I)||The exchange of information between a vehicle and a roadside device or centralized equipment to enhance safety, mobility, and sustainability|
|Vehicle-to-Pedestrian (V2P)||The exchange of information between a vehicle and a connected device representing a pedestrian or other vulnerable road user to enhance safety, mobility, and sustainability.|
|Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V)||The exchange of information between vehicles to enhance safety, mobility, and sustainability.|
|Vehicle-to-Anything (V2X)||The exchange of information between a vehicle one or more connected devices to enhance safety, mobility, and sustainability. The other connected device might be another vehicle, a pedestrian or other vulnerable road user device, a roadside station, or a central system.|
|Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE)||A radio communications system intended to provide seamless, interoperable services to transportation users|
|WAVE Short Message Protocol (WSMP)||A low-overhead TransNet Layer protocol designed for use over DSRC|
3GPP - 3rd Generation Partnership Project
5G - 5th Generation (cellular technology)
ATTRI - Accessible Transportation Technologies Research Initiative
BSM - Basic Safety Message
C-ITS - Cooperative ITS
C-V2X - Cellular Vehicle-to-Anything
CAMP - Collision Avoidance Metrics Partnership
CO2 - Carbon Dioxide
CV - Connected Vehicle
DSRC - Dedicated Short Range Communications
FCC - Federal Communications Commission
GHz - Gigahertz
GPS - Global Positioning System
IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
ISO - International Standards Organization
ITE - Institute of Transportation Engineers
ITS - Intelligent Transportation Systems
JPO - Joint Program Office
LTE - Long-Term Evolution (cellular technology)
OBE - On-Board Equipment
OBU - On-Board Units
POC - Proof-of-Concept
SAE - Society of Automotive Engineers
SCMS - Security Credential Management System
SDO - Standards Development Organization
USDOT - United States Department of Transportation
V2I - Vehicle-to-Infrastructure
V2P - Vehicle-to-Pedestrian
V2V - Vehicle-to-Vehicle
V2X - Vehicle-to-Anything
WAVE - Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments
WIP -Work in Progress
WSMP - WAVE Short Message Protocol
6. Supplemental Figures
Figure 1 shows how the various components of the vehicle's on-board equipment interact to provide connected vehicle services.
Figure 1: Components of the V2X network
The on-board applications provide the logic for all connected vehicle applications, such as safety, mobility, and sustainability related applications. These applications rely upon the Platform to store security certificates, application data, and other information. The on-board applications use one or more V2X radios to receive and transmit data via the vehicle's antennae. Multiple radios are typically required due to the need to manage communications on multiple channels simultaneously. The onboard applications also use the GPS receiver to identify its position and to keep its time synchronized with other devices (e.g., vehicles, pedestrians, roadside devices). All of these components make up the connected vehicle on-board equipment (OBE).
The on-board connected vehicle applications might also need to interact with other equipment contained in the vehicle that is not considered a part of the OBE. For example, the on-board applications might need to access the CAN-bus to determine the vehicle speed, braking status, anti-lock brake status, etc. Finally, the on-board applications might also need to convey information to the driver or vehicle occupants via the provided human interface components.
Federal Register and Requests
8. Study Questions
1. Which of the following does the USDOT NOT include in its list of benefits of connected vehicles?
2. Which of the following is NOT an identified component of the V2V network?
3. What data is NOT included as a Basic Safety requirement?
4. Which is NOT a benefit of using ITS Standards?
5. Which of the following is NOT a part of the ITS Station Architecture?
6. Which of the following is an application data standard?
7. Which of the following has NOT been identified in this presentation as a V2V service that agencies might need to consider implementing?
8. What is a current challenge to deploying connected vehicles?
9. Which of the following is NOT a current connected vehicle activity?
10. Which of the following is the USDOT currently testing in relation to communication technology alternatives offered by C-V2X and DSRC?
Q1: Which of the following does the USDOT NOT include in its list of benefits of connected vehicles?
Q2: Which of the following is NOT an identified component of the V2V network?
Q3: What data is NOT included as a Basic Safety requirement?
Q4: Which is NOT a benefit of using ITS Standards?
Q5: Which of the following is NOT a part of the ITS Station Architecture?
Q6: Which of the following is an application data standard?
Q7: Which of the following has NOT been identified in this presentation as a V2V service that agencies might need to consider implementing?
Q8: What is a current challenge to deploying connected vehicles?
Q9: Which of the following is NOT a current connected vehicle activity?
Q10: Which of the following is the USDOT currently testing in relation to communication technology alternatives offered by C-V2X and DSRC?