Module 43 - I261

I261: Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) ITS Standards for Project Managers

HTML of the Student Supplement

(Note: This document has been converted from the Student Supplement to 508-compliant HTML. The formatting has been adjusted for 508 compliance, but all the original text content is included, plus additional text descriptions for the images, photos and/or diagrams have been provided below.)


Module I261: Vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) ITS Standards for Project Managers


Table of Contents

Introduction/Purpose - 2

Reference to Other Standards - 5

Glossary - 4

abbrs - 6

References - 8

Study Questions - 10


Module Description

This module is an introduction to the connected vehicle environment, with a focus on a standards-based vehicle-to-infrastructure communications. I101, Using ITS Standards - An Overview, is a recommended prerequisite for participants. A companion module is I262, Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) ITS Standards for Project Managers, which focuses on standards-based vehicle-to-vehicle communications.

1. Introduction/Purpose

The connected vehicle environment has the potential to significantly reduce vehicular crashes, provide operators of surface transportation systems with more timely and accurate system performance data to better manage their systems, and provide travelers with access to specific traveler information. In such an environment, each vehicle on the roadway can also potentially serve as a data collector, providing transportation planners with a wealth of real-time travel data.

This module provides an introduction to the connected vehicle environment and a description of the potential benefits and capabilities of a Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) environment. The module presents several V2I safety, mobility, and environmental applications and discusses the types of information that may be exchanged between the different devices that make up the V2I environment.

The module then presents the ITS Standards that help support the deployment of a V2I application and a V2I infrastructure. The module also introduces some of the challenges to designing and implementing a V2I infrastructure, and provides some strategies and approaches to deploying the V2I infrastructure.

It is essential that agencies use standards in deploying connected vehicle technologies to maximize the benefits from the connected vehicle environment. By taking this module, participants will learn what connected vehicle standards exist, where to find the standards, and how to use the connected vehicle standards to procure, implement and operate standards-based devices and equipment. Deploying these connected vehicle standards will support interoperability, minimize future integration costs, make procurements easier, and facilitate regional and national integration.


2. Reference to Other Standards







3. Glossary

To include additional descriptions/abbrs used primarily in the module.

Term Definition
Aftermarket Safety Device (ASD) A connected device in a vehicle that operates while the vehicle is mobile, but which is not connected to the data bus of the vehicle.
Application A piece of software that processes inputs for a specific use or purpose.
Backhaul The closed network communications links between a Traffic Management Center (or other back offices), links between TMCs, and field installations (such as traffic signal controllers, traffic cameras, and other sensors). This could also include the link between the Security Credential Management System (SCMS) and roadside distribution device.
Basic Safety Message (BSM) The core data set transmitted by the connected vehicle (vehicle size, position, speed, heading acceleration, brake system status) and transmitted approximately 10x per second. A secondary set is available depending upon events (e.g., ABS activated) and contains a variable set of data elements drawn from many optional data elements (availability by vehicle model varies). This would be transmitted less frequently. The BSM is tailored for low latency; localized broadcast required by V2V safety applications but can be used with many other types of applications.
Connected Device Any device used to transmit to or receive messages from another device. A connected device can be sub-categorized as an OBE, ASD, VAD, or RSE. In many cases, the connected device will be a DSRC device, but other types of communications can and are expected to be supported.
Connected Vehicle (CV) A vehicle containing an OBU or ASD. Note that vehicles may alternatively include a Vehicle Awareness Device (VAD), which transmits the BSM but does not received broadcasts from other devices and cannot directly support vehicle-based applications.
Connected Vehicle Reference Implementation Architecture (CVRIA) A set of system architecture views that describe the functions, physical and logical interfaces, enterprise/institutional relationships, and communications protocol dependencies within the connected vehicle environment. The CVRIA defines functionality and information exchanges needed to provide connected vehicle applications.
Dedicated Short Range Communications(DSRC) The use of non-voice radio techniques to transfer data over short distances between roadside and mobile radio units, between mobile units, and between portable and mobile units to perform operations related to the improvement of traffic flow, traffic safety and other intelligent transportation service applications in a variety of public and commercial environments. [FCC, Dedicated Short Range Communications of Intelligent Transportation Services - Final Rule, FR Doc No: 99-30591] A technology for the transmission of information between multiple vehicles (V2V) and between vehicles and the transportation infrastructure (V2I) using wireless technologies.
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Systems that apply data processing and data communications to surface transportation, to increase safety and efficiency. ITS systems will often integrate components and users from many domains, both public and private.
Interoperability The ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged. The dependence of the CV Environment on successful exchange of data between independent components results in a requirement that all V2I deployments.
Latency A measure of time delay experienced in a system, the precise definition of which depends on the system and the time being measured. For a data element in this context, latency is the time difference between the time that data value is acquired by the source and the time the message is transmitted.
MAP A message containing roadway geometric information.
NTCIP The National Transportation Communications for Intelligent Transportation System Protocol (NTCIP) is a family of standards designed to achieve interoperability and interchangeability between computers and electronic traffic control equipment from different manufacturers.
On-Board Equipment (OBE) This term refers to the complement of equipment located in the vehicle for the purpose of supporting the vehicle side of the applications. It is likely to include the DSRC radios, other radio equipment, message processing, driver interface, and other applications to support the use cases described herein. It is also referred to as the Vehicle ITS Station. When referring to the DSRC radio alone, the correct term is OBU (see below).
On-Board Unit (OBU) A vehicle mounted device used to transmit and receive a variety of message traffic to and from other connected devices (other OBUs and RSUs). Among the message types and applications supported by this device are vehicle safety messages, a primary subject of this standard, used to exchange information on each vehicle's dynamic movements for coordination and safety.
RoadSide Equipment (RSE) Term used to describe the complement of equipment to be located at the roadside; the RSE will prepare and transmit messages to the vehicles and receive messages from the vehicles for the purpose of supporting the V2I applications. This is intended to include the DSRC radio, traffic signal controller where appropriate, interface to the backhaul communications network necessary to support the applications, and support such functions as data security, encryption, buffering, and message processing. It may also be referred to as the roadside ITS station. When speaking of the DSRC radio alone, the correct term is RSU (see below).
RoadSide Unit (RSU) A connected device that is only allowed to operate from a fixed position (which may in fact be a permanent installation or from temporary equipment brought on-site for a period of time associated with an incident, road construction, or other event). Some RSEs may have connectivity to other nodes or the Internet.
Security Certificate Management System (SCMS) A public key infrastructure approach to security involving the management of digital certificates that are used to sign and authenticate messages among legitimate but unknown vehicles and/or equipment and/or other points of connection.
Signal Phase and Timing (SPaT) A message type that describes the current state of a signal system and its phases and relates this to the specific lanes (and therefore to maneuvers and approaches) in the intersection.
Vehicle A self-propelled transport device, along with any attachments (e.g., trailers), that is a legal user of the transportation network.
V2I Vehicle-to-Infrastructure communications: a system designed to wirelessly exchange information between a vehicle and the infrastructure.
V2V Vehicle-to-Vehicle communications: a system designed to transmit basic safety information between vehicles to facilitate warnings to drivers concerning impending crashes.
WAVE Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments. A WAVE system is a radio communications system intended to provide seamless, interoperable services to transportation.


4. abbrs

AACNR - Advanced Automatic Crash Notification Relay

AASHTO - American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials

AFV - Alternative Fuel Vehicle

ANPRM - Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

ASD - Aftermarket Safety Devices

ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials

BSM - Basic Safety Message

CAMP - Collision Avoidance Metrics Partnership

CME - Certificate Management Entities

CSR - Common Safety Request

CVRIA - Connected Vehicles Reference Implementation Architecture

DNPW - Do Not Pass Warning

DSRC - Dedicated Short Range Communications

EMDSS - Enhanced Maintenance Decision Support System

EVA - Emergency Vehicle Alert

FCC - Federal Communications Commission

FCW - Forward Collision Warning

GAO - General Accounting Office

GPS - Global Positioning System

ICA - Intersection Collision Avoidance

IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers

INC-ZONE - Incident Scene Work Zone Alerts for Drivers and Workers

ISD - Integrated Safety Devices

ISO - International Standards Organization

ITE - Institute of Transportation Engineers

ITS - Intelligent Transportation Systems

JPO - Joint Program Office

LTE - Long-Term Evolution

LTE-D - Long-Term Evolution Direct

MAC - Medium Access Control

MDSS - Maintenance Decision Support System

NEMA - National Electrical Manufacturers Association

NHTSA - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

NMEA - National Marine Electronics Association

NPRM - Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

NTCIP - National Transportation Communications for ITS Protocol

OBE - On-Board Equipment

OBU - On-Board Units

OVW - Oversize Vehicle Warning

P2P - Peer-to-Peer

PHY - Physical layer

PSID - Provider Service Identifier

RCW - Railroad Crossing Warning

RFA - Request For Applications

RLVW - Red Light Violation Warning

RSA - Roadside Alert

RSD - Retrofit Safety Devices

RSE - RoadSide Equipment

RSU - RoadSide Unit

RSZW - Reduced Speed Zone Warning

RTCM - Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services

SAE - Society of Automotive Engineers

SCMS - Security Credential Management System

SDO - Standards Development Organization

SPaT - Signal Phase and Timing

SRM - Signal Request Message

SSM - Signal Status Message

STA - Station

TIM - Traveler Information Message

USDOT - United States Department of Transportation

VAD - Vehicle Awareness Device

VDTO - Vehicle Data for Traffic Operations

VTRFTV - Vehicle Turning Right in Front of a Transit Vehicle

WAVE - Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments

WHWZ - Warnings about Hazard in a Work Zone

WLAN> - Wireless Local Area Network

WSMP - WAVE Short Message Protocol

WUWZ - Warnings about Upcoming Work Zone

WWAN - Wireless Wide Area Network

V2I - Vehicle-to-Infrastructure

V2P - Vehicle-to-Pedestrian

V2V - Vehicle-to-Vehicle


5. References

Connected Vehicle Basics

Federal Register and Requests

Deployment (General)

Research Qualified Products List


6. Study Questions

1. Which of the following is NOT a method to reduce crashes in a V2I environment?

  1. Through a website
  2. Through driver warnings
  3. Through infrastructure controls
  4. Through vehicle controls

2. Which of the following is not a V2I safety application?

  1. Red Light Violation Warning
  2. Forward Collision Warning
  3. Curve Speed Warning
  4. Stop Sign Gap Assist

3. Which of the following is a data standard?

  1. IEEE 802.11-2012
  2. IEEE 1609.x Family of Standards
  3. SAE J2735
  4. USDOT FHWA Vehicle Awareness Device Specification

4. What is a challenge to deploying connected vehicles during the initial "rollout"?

  1. Each automobile vendor uses its own protocol
  2. There have been no field tests of connected equipment
  3. No expected rule requiring vehicles be equipped
  4. Very few vehicles are equipped

5. What is the current status of connected vehicle standards?

  1. The standards are stable so no revisions are needed
  2. The standards are being revised based only on lessons learned from pilot deployments and field tests
  3. The standards are being revised based only on existing USDOT regulations
  4. The standards are being revised based on lessons learned and harmonization with each other