Module 63 - CV265

CV265: Introduction to IEEE 1609 Family of Standards for Wireless Access in a Vehicular Environments (WAVE)

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Slide 1:

This slide contains a graphic with the word “Welcome” in large letters. ITS Training Standards “WELCOME” slide, with reference to the U.S. Department of Transportation Office of Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology

Slide 2:

This slide contains a graphic with the word “Welcome” in large letters, photo of Kenneth Leonard, Director ITS Joint Program Office - Ken.Leonard@dot.gov - and on the bottom is a screeshot of the ITS JPO website - www.pcb.its.dot.gov

Slide 3:

CV265

Introduction to IEEE 1609 Family of Standards for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE)

This title slide contains a photo of a wireless environment in which several vehicles are shown connected wirelessly. The photo is in support of the title message.

Slide 4:

Instructor

The slide entitled "Instructor" has a photo of the instructor, Raman K Patel, Ph.D., PE, on the left-hand side.

Raman K Patel, Ph.D., P.E.

President

RK Patel Associates, Inc.

Slide 5:

Learning Objectives

Slide 6:

Learning Objective 1

Slide 7:

Connected Vehicle (CV) Environment

This slide contains on the left of a photo of the CV environment, where at top, several moving cars are shown, vertically below several hand-held devices such as a cell phone are shown, and below it, a building is depicted as infrastructure. To the right side of the image, the CV environment text appears.

CV Environment Consists of:

CV Communications:

Slide 8:

CV Environment is Unique

Dynamic Operational Characteristics

In this slide, a roadway section shows vehicles moving in both directions, with left arrow at top, right arrow at bottom, and wireless circles are shown around each vehicle. The top three cars are going towards left, below that five cars are moving towards right. The aim here is to show that CV environment is dynamic and changing constantly.

Slide 9:

WAVE (Wireless Access for Vehicular Environments)

WAVE is a Communication System

Author's relevant description: This slide show on the left a photo image of infrastructure section with safety, mobility and environment and to the right a photo of actual operational wireless environment is shown in which a bus, other vehicles are moving and one vehicle depicting inside view of a navigation system and collision alert message. Together the image conveys how greater situational awareness is created for the wirelessly connected vehicles.

Slide 10:

Purpose and Mission of WAVE Standards

Mission

"The WAVE standards enable the development of interoperable low-latency, low overhead WAVE devices that can provide communications in support of transportation safety, efficiency, and sustainability, and that can enhance user comfort and convenience."

IEEE 1609.0 std.

Example

Latency is a measure of time delay experienced in a system; e.g. Forward Collision Warning application limits 0.1 sec latency, measured between end points.

IEEE

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

Author's relevant description: This slide shows the Mission statement; underneath is a photo of CV environment where several vehicles are wirelessly shown connected. The photo supports the mission statement.

Source: USDOT

Slide 11:

Standardized Direct Communication Technologies that use WAVE

1. Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) uses Published Standards:

2. LTE-V2X Under Preparation

LTE - Long Term Evolution
3GPP - Third Generation Partnership Project
SAE - Society of Automotive Engineers
IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

Slide 12:

SAE Standards/Documents Published

Uses WAVE

Slide 13:

SAE Standards/Documents Published (cont.)

Uses WAVE

Slide 14:

SAE Standards/Documents in Development

Uses WAVE

Slide 15:

SAE Standards/Documents in Development (cont.)

Uses WAVE

Slide 16:

WAVE'S Relationships to Other Protocol Models

Author's relevant description: This slide shows the WAVE relationships to other protocols stacks-OSI and ITS Station reference Architecture is briefly introduced. The Key Message is that the ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) ITS station Architecture is shown to the left, followed by ISO OSI stack in the middle and WAVE stack to the right. Chart shows relationships: (ISO 21217 describes the) ITS station reference architecture, which is derived from the OSI layered model for communications. Left side layers use boxes starting with Applications at top, bellow it Facilities followed by Networking Transport layers and Access Layer at the bottom. Thus, it showed four key layers-Application, Facilities, Networking and Access and depicted the ITS station reference architecture and its relationship to the OSI Reference Model (ISO/IEC 7498-1:1994. To the right of OSI layers, diagram shows the IEEE Std 1609 protocol stack. At the Top box, it states that facilities layers 5-7 are is not used by WAVE standards. Underneath protocol layers are shown with IPv6 and WSMP at Network/Transport layers and below that LLC layer is shown. Below that, MAC and PHY layers are shown. The diagram conveys how WAVE stack relates to ISO stack in the middle.

WSMP - Wave Short Message Protocol
OSI - Open System Interconnect
ETSI - European Telecommunications Standards Institute
API - Application Programming Interface
LLC - Logical Link Control

Source: IEEE 1609.0 Std.

Slide 17:

IEEE 1609 Family of Standards (2016)

Standards Deployed in WAVE Protocol Stack-Devices

MAC-Media Access Control
PHY-Physical Layer
WSMP-WAVE Short Message Protocol

Supplement icon indicating items or information that are further explained/detailed in the Student Supplement.

Slide 18:

WAVE is Customized Protocol Architecture

Author's relevant description: This slide contains layers of WAVE protocol stack: to the left Management plane and to the right side Data Plane is shown. Under the management plane, left most vertical box shows Security Services, next to it layer specific management entity box is shown. Next to that appears an Ipv6 stack and WSMP stack. Below each stack is lower layers shown as a layer with text 802.11or 3GPP PC5 interface. Together, the diagram depicts how WAVE stack is constructed at Networking and Transport layers. The general message is also that both IPv6 and WSMP protocols are supported and at PHY layer, both DSRC 802.11 and LTE-V2x communications are supported. At each layer bracket is provided with a pertinent IEEE 1809 standard used at that layer. IEEE 1609.3-WSMP is a common protocol at Networking and Transport Layers, 1608.4 Channel switching is at lower layers and MAC/802.11 at PHY layer. Security Services box at left is shown with 1609.2 standard. Each IEEE 1609 standard is thus allocated at desired layers.

WSMP-WAVE Short Message Protocol
TCP-Transmission Control Protocol
IP-Internet Protocol
UDP-User Datagram Protocol
MAC-Media Access Control

Courtesy-Justin McNew

Supplement icon indicating items or information that are further explained/detailed in the Student Supplement.

Slide 19:

Uses of Protocols

WSMP

IPv6

Well-suited to message-based applications.

Slide 20:

DSRC 5.9 GHz Spectrum Assigned by FCC

Radio Channels Current Design

Author's relevant description: This slide contains horizontal boxes to show 5.9 GHZ spectrum current design, beginning with RED box showing SSH 172, next box SCH 174, then SCH 176, 178 in blue box, SCH 180, and last box is SCH 184. A RED arrow underneath SCH 174-176 points to a text box below that read Downloading and a RED arrow underneath SCH 180-182 points to a text box below titled Uploading. Purpose: Current Channels design as per FCC allocation is introduced. Key Message: what is each type of channel. SCH 172 is designated exclusively for ONLY active safety messages (V2V)- collision avoidance-mitigation, safety of life and property. SCH 174/176 are to be used for downloading software. SCH 180/182 are to be used for uploading logs-history of logs-OBU activities etc. SCH 184 is reserved for higher power up to 1000 KM range emergency vehicle uses. CCH 178 is a devoted channel, starts first in broadcasting messages sequenceinterval, and it is followed by one of six SCHs. A sequence of CCH and SCH alternates every 50ms. CCH 178 must broadcast its WAVE Service Advertisement (WSA) message. SCH 175 can be created, with 20 MB bandwidth, by combining 174 & 176. Similarly SCH 181&182 can be combined to form SCH 181 (both are Not shown in the diagram).

Slide 21:

WAVE Devices

Devices Transmit/Receive Messages (data) from other Devices in the Vicinity

Author's relevant description: This slide contains three graphic images to convey how devices transmit/receive messages. The large photo at left bottom shows an RSU field operation with RSU mounted on mast arm where signal heads are also shown. Thus, it implies that the RSU are mounted for high visibility in open space. The other photo on left shows a vehicle with an OBU installed inside the dashboard area and the vehicle is passing underneath a mast arm where an RSU is mounted. In-between RSU phot on left and OBU photo on right appears wireless commu symbol to show that both units are communicating wirelessly. Both photos are from the City of Dublin, OH in real world setting for CV operation.

Source: City of Dublin, OH

Slide 22:

WAVE Device Performs Two Roles

Provider issues a WSA (nominally on the CCH 178) to indicate available opportunity on SCHs.

User monitors CCH 178 for a WSA, makes determination to participate or not to participate.

WSA-WAVE Service Advertisement

Slide 23:

Activity Placeholder: This slide has the word “Activity” in large letters at the top of the slide, with a graphic of a hand on a computer keyboard below it.

Slide 24:

Question

Which of the following is an incorrect statement related to WAVE System?

Answer Choices

  1. WAVE devices deploy IEEE 1609.3 standard.
  2. WSMP/IPv6, both protocols can be used at network layer.
  3. WAVE Service Advertising (WSA) indicates BSMs on SCH 172.
  4. V2X includes all forms of CV communication services.

Slide 25:

Review of Answers

A small graphical red and yellow X representing incorrect.a) WAVE devices deploy IEEE 1609.3 standard.
Statement is correct. IEEE 1609.3 standard provides networking capability.

A small graphical red and yellow X representing incorrect.b) WSMP/IPv6, both protocols can be used at network layer.
Statement is correct. Both protocols are deployable at network layer.

A small graphical green and yellow check mark representing correct.c) WAVE Service Advertising (WSA) indicates BSMs on SCH 172.
Incorrect. WSA is NOT used for safety channel SCH 172.

A small graphical red and yellow X representing incorrect.d) V2X includes all forms of CV communication services.
Statement is correct. V2X includes everything: V2V, V2I, V2P…

Slide 26:

Learning Objective 2

Slide 27:

IEEE 1609.3 Networking Services

Collection of Management and Data Services

Author's relevant description: This slide contains layers of the WAVE protocol stack portion of the figure as depicted and explained in slides 16 and 18. To the left of the stack is the text Management Plane contains the functions that indirectly manage the entities in the data plane, and WSA Monitoring, MIB Maintenance, and IPv6 Configuration. Above the stack is the text Data Plane contains ONLY data exchange functions. The key message is: Networking services provided by the 1609.3 std. includes collection of functions at Management Plane and Data Plane at the Network and Transport layers.

Source: IEEE 1609.0

MIB-Management Information Base

Slide 28:

IEEE 1609.3 Networking Services

Author's relevant description: This slide contains layers of the WAVE protocol stack portion of the figure as depicted and explained in slides 16 and 18. To the right of the stack is the text WSMP is for one hop broadcast messages e.g. BSMs. IPv6 is used for larger data exchanges (e.g. probe data uploads), unicast messages (e.g. private conversations) and network communications (e.g. using RSU as a router). Below the stack is the text Both are separate and distinct networking protocols, and one does not depend on the other (e.g., IPv6 frames are not transported over WSMP, or vice versa). Key Message: Data services are indicated with arrows on the data plane including LLC, lower layers are blocked. Focus is on IP and WSMP protocols. Both are independent of each other. (They are Not part of each other's headers.)

Both are separate and distinct networking protocols, and one does not depend on the other (e.g., IPv6 frames are not transported over WSMP, or vice versa).

Slide 29:

IEEE 1609.3 Networking Services

Data Services

Author's relevant description: Key message: Structure of WSM is shown and contents are explained. Address info field contains PSID-Provider Service Identifier. Next slide discusses PSID. Support for WSMP is conditionally mandatory. Delivery of a received WSM to a higher layer entity is determined by the WSMP header Address Info field. In this version of the standard-v3, the Address Info contains a Provider Service Identifier (PSID)/ A WSM may be accepted by one or more destination devices, depending on the type of MAC-level addressing used (e.g., individual or group). Note that MAC addresses may be changed for pseudonymity as specified in IEEE Std 1609.4. Within a receiving device, the message will be delivered by WSMP to any higher layer entities with interest in the application-service opportunity associated with the PSID. Interest is indicated via the WSM service request procedure. Higher layer entities take responsibility for message signing and authentication (per IEEE Std 1609.2) and for providing the channel information for transmission. WSMP is also used to send and receive WSAs. From the standpoint of WSMP, the WME may be considered as a higher layer entity.

Source: Ken Vaughn

Slide 30:

Provider Service Identifier (PSID)

Nearly 100 applications are registered with unique integer as PSID

Author's relevant description: This slide show two RED boxes marked OBU and between them, a symbol of wireless interface is shown. The diagram shows OBUS communicate through wireless air interface. On the left under the first red box the text reads WAVE device creates a list of PSIDs that have active receive processes at higher layers, e.g. BSMs 0x20. On the right it reads When a WSM arrives, if the PSID matches one of those on the list, the WSM payload is forwarded to that process.

https://standards.ieee.org/products-services/regauth/psid/public.html

Supplement icon indicating items or information that are further explained/detailed in the Student Supplement.

Slide 31:

WAVE Communications Scenarios

Scenario 1: SCH 172 Communications

Example 1: V2V, BSMs are broadcasted 10X per sec.

Example 2: V2I, SPaT/MAP data can also be transmitted on 172

Author's relevant description: This slide contains two boxes marked WAVE device, one on left is GREEN box for SCH 172 and one on right is RED box for SCH 172; they represent WAVE devices which communicate with air interface symbol shown in the middle using SCH 172.

Slide 32:

WAVE Communications Scenarios

Scenario 2: CCH 178 Communications

Author's relevant description: This slide shows same arrangement as shown in slide 31 above, but for SCH 178 communication.

Slide 33:

Example of WSM Transmission (V2X)

How it Works (V2X)-Information Broadcasts

Author's relevant description: This slide has three text arrows, underneath each, from left to right labeled as WSM: Shows from left to right, WSM between RSU/OBU on left to OBU on right. The text on the left reads WSM can be sent on any channel can be specified ahead of time (e.g. safety channel). The text on the right reads Information Broadcasts are used to transmit, for example BSMs, SPaT messages.

Source: Courtesy Justin McNew

Slide 34:

Illustration of V2V Safety

Author's relevant description: This slide contains a graphic of three vehicles passing as a platoon from left to right direction on a roadway: front vehicle is white followed by a red and last one is Blue. A RED box over the text Sending Device, with a red arrow points to the front vehicle, and a green arrow starting from Receiver device points to last blue vehicle. The arrangement shows how a sending device (white vehicle) and receiving device (Blue vehicle) function in a V2V communication set up for FCW application. The additional text on the slide reads 1. Sending Provider device broadcasts BSM messages (10x per sec.) over WSMP on SCH 172 (WSA not required). PSID (0x20 hex) in the WSMP header identifies the V2V safety and awareness application such as FCW. Receiving User device recognizes the PSID 0x20 as the V2V safety and awareness, and passes it to registered applications, such as FCW shown here and many others.

Slide 35:

Example of Localization with RF Coverage

How it Works (V2I)-Localized Data Exchange

Author's relevant description: This slide contains a graphic arrangement same as Slide 33, except communication is between RSU and OBU with first arrowhead showing WSM from left to right, second text Channel Switch (no arrow) showing and third two-way arrow stating Peer to Peer WSMP IP communication. The additional text on the slide reads WSA is typically transmitted on the CCH to advertise available applications or services, and data exchange occurs on service channel. WSMP and IP can both be used to exchange application information on a SCH.

This approach can be used, for example, to support electronic fee collection.

Source: Courtesy Justin McNew

Slide 36:

Example of WSM Transmission (V2X)

How it Works (V2I)-Cloud Based

Author's relevant description: This slide contains same arrangement as above in Slide 35, except a cloud is attached to RSU on left top. The communication intent is same-peer to peer data exchange using IP. WSA needs to contain a WAVE router, WRA in this case.

Example Applications: Probe Data Collection,

Road Weather Data Collection/Distribution, SCMS

Source: Courtesy Justin McNew

Slide 37:

Internet Connectivity with IPv6 Communication

Illustration of RSU Role as Gateway (V2I)

Author's relevant description: The slide shows three protocol stacks showing layers and each labeled at top as TMC on leftmost, RSU in the middle and OBU stack on the right. All three are served with air interface between them. In addition, a real world TMC photo on left and a snow plough machine (OBU) on right top corner indicate how an internet communication is taking place using RSU as a gateway.

Source: IEEE 1609.0 Std.

WRA-WAVE Routing Advertisement
TMC-Traffic Management Center

Example icon. Can be real-world (case study), hypothetical, a sample of a table, etc.

Slide 38:

Activity Placeholder: This slide has the word “Activity” in large letters at the top of the slide, with a graphic of a hand on a computer keyboard below it.

Slide 39:

Question

Which of the following is NOT included in the IEEE 1609.3 standard?

Answer Choices

  1. WSA (WAVE Service Advertisement).
  2. PSID (Provider Service Identifier).
  3. WSMP (WAVE Short Message Protocol)/IPv6.
  4. BSM (Basic Safety Message).

Slide 40:

Review of Answers

A small graphical red and yellow X representing incorrect.a) WSA (Wave Service Advertisement).
Incorrect. WSA is included in 1609.3.

A small graphical red and yellow X representing incorrect.b) PSID (Provider Service Identifier).
Incorrect. PSID is included in 1609.3.

A small graphical red and yellow X representing incorrect.c) WSMP/IPv6.
Incorrect. Both protocols are included in 1609.3 standard.

A small graphical green and yellow check mark representing correct.d) BSM (Basic Safety Message).
Correct! BSM is NOT included in 1609.3; it is part of J2735/J2945.1 standards.

Slide 41:

Learning Objective 3

Slide 42:

Role of IEEE 1609.4 Multi-Channel Operation

Management Plane Provides:

✓ Multi-channel Synchronization

✓ Channel Access

✓ MIB Maintenance

✓ Readdressing (MAC address)

Author's relevant description: Key Message: The services provided by the 1609.4 std. are described. Primarily it provides an extension to IEEE 802.11 so as to provide time synchronization and channel-specific access features in support of channel coordination, MIB maintenance and readdressing. Management Plane includes MLME-MAC Sublayer Management Entity. IT provides for: Multi-channel Synchronization-time slot synchronization, UTC. Channel Access-MCME allows access to 802.11services for each channel basis. MIB Maintenance Readdressing-MLME allows device MAC address change in support of pseudonymity.

Slide 43:

Role of IEEE 1609.4 Multi-Channel Operation

Author's relevant description: Key Message: WAVE devices shall communicate outside the context of an IEEE 802.11 basic service set (i.e., with dot11OCBActivated equal true), as specified in IEEE Std 802.11. A transmitting WAVE device shall support WSMP traffic, IP traffic, or both. (REF.1609.4, page 16). There are three types of over the air information specified by IEEE Std 802.11: management frames, data frames, and control frames.  control frames may be used per IEEE Std 802.11 and are not addressed in this standard. Management frames used by WAVE enter the data plane at the MAC layer. The only management frame specified for use by a WAVE device is the TA frame specified in IEEE Std 802.11. Timing Advertisement (TA) frames are used to distribute time synchronization information as specified in 6.2.

LLC: Logical Link Control

Slide 44:

Role of IEEE 1609.4 Multi-Channel Operation

Provides extension to 802.11 MAC sublayer to utilize more than one channel and coordination

Author's relevant description: This slide contains a graphic of four horizontal layers stack, first shows green with LLC sublayer, below that MAC Extension sublayer in Red. Both are related to IEEE 802.2 at left. Below that, two blue layers are showing IEEE 802.11, first Mac sublayer and last layer is PHY.

Slide 45:

Role of IEEE 1609.4 Multi-Channel Operation

Supports Dual Radio Operation

Author's relevant description: This slide contains a graphic of Radio 1 and 2 at left bottom corner to show OBU configuration. Radio 1 (top) typically tuned to SCH 172 for safety messages such as collision warning alerts. Radio 2 (bottom) can be configured for switching to (other) SCHs for ITS

Slide 46:

Role of IEEE 802.11

Role of 802.11 is to Move Data between MAC/PHY Peers

Author's relevant description: The slide shows Mac sublayer and PHY layer in blue with 802.11 to left.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6361248

Slide 47:

MAC/PHY Layers

Example photo of a broadband router label that shows the MAC address.

Slide 48:

What is Channel Coordination?

Channel Coordination Supports Data Exchange

Involving one or more switching devices with concurrent alternating operation on multiple channels

Author's relevant description: DSRC 5.9 Spectrum channel design with SSH and CCH are shown, under which a time slot 0 and time slot 1 are shown. It indicates that time slot 0 is always used for CCH 178 and slot 1 is for SSH. A blue upward arrow points to Tuned to 178 and another arrow points to tuned to SCH. A germband of 5 msec is also shown between SSH and SCH. Each time slot 0 and 1 are 50 msec intervals.

Slide 49:

Channel Coordination

Multi-Channel Operation at Lower Layers

MLME-MAC sublayer Layer Management Entity
WME-WAVE Management Entity

Slide 50:

Channel Coordination

Access Options

Author's relevant description: Key Message: Channel access options support various usage scenarios: A device is preconfigured to operate on a single control or service channel, e.g., an “always-on safety channel” for participation in a known set of application-services, or the CCH to monitor for service advertisements. These are examples of continuous access. A device is configured to monitor the CCH. On receipt of a WSA indicating an advertised application service opportunity of interest, this device switches to the indicated SCH during time slot 1 to participate in a specific activity, returning to the CCH during time slot 0 to monitor for further WSA or other activity. Alternately, a device may be configured for alternating access between two SCHs, one of which is the channel where the WSA is received. These are examples of alternating access. A device is configured to monitor a first channel, e.g., CCH 178. On receipt of a WSA indicating an advertised application-service opportunity of interest, the device switches immediately to a second (indicated in the advertisement) channel for a duration sufficient to complete a specific activity, after which it may return to the first channel. This is an example of immediate access. Immediate access can be combined with continuous access to allow an extended time on channel (i.e. until the transection is done).

Immediate access can be combined with continuous access to allow an extended time on channel (i.e. until the transection is done).

Slide 51:

Multi-Channel Synchronization with UTC

Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) Derived from GPS (GNSS) on the Device

Author's relevant description: This slide contains two graphic images to convey time synchronization-coordination for V2X. The large photo at left bottom shows an RSU field operation with RSU mounted on mast arm where signal heads are also shown. Thus, it implies that the RSU are mounted for high visibility in open space. The other photo on left shows a vehicle with an OBU installed inside the dashboard area and the vehicle is passing underneath a mast arm where an RSU is mounted. The Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) Derived from GPS (GNSS) on the Device allows both devices shown in the photos-RSU and OBU from the City of Dublin, OH in real-world setting conveys coordinated CV V2V operation.

GPS-Global Positioning System, also called GNSS-Global Navigation Satellite System

https://time.is/UTC

Slide 52:

Activity Placeholder: This slide has the word “Activity” in large letters at the top of the slide, with a graphic of a hand on a computer keyboard below it.

Slide 53:

Question

Which of the following is an incorrect statement? Answer Choices

  1. IEEE 1609.4 supports channel switching capability.
  2. BSM messages are typically received on SCH 172.
  3. Channel switching operation occurs at Network layer.
  4. Dual radio ensures continuous listening of safety messages.

Slide 54:

Review of Answers

A small graphical red and yellow X representing incorrect.a) IEEE 1609.4 supports channel switching capability.
Correct Statement. 1609 provides channel switching capability.

A small graphical red and yellow X representing incorrect.b) BSM messages are typically received on SCH 172.
Correct statement. SCH 172 is typically reserved for BSMs.

A small graphical green and yellow check mark representing correct.c) Channel switching operation occurs at Network layer.
Incorrect statement, Channel switching occurs at PHY layer.

A small graphical red and yellow X representing incorrect.d) Dual radio ensures continuous listening of safety messages.
Correct statement. Radio 1 tuned to SCH 172 for safety messages, Radio 2 can switch to other SCHs.

Slide 55:

Learning Objective 4

Slide 56:

WAVE Communication Security Challenges

Consider 2 vehicles, part of dynamic ad-hoc network

The slide shows a graphic with two vehicles going towards left with an arrow point to left direction, cars are covered with wireless circles. Below that in a divided roadway section, two cars are going in second lane towards right, and three cars in third lane moving towards right direction shown by right arrow. Together, graphic projects a wireless environment.

Slide 57:

Role of 1609.2: Security Services

Please see extended text description below.

(Extended Text Description: This slide contains the figure from slide 18, but the WAVE stack is shown towards the right side. Security services provided by IEEE 1609.2 is shown with an arrow pointed to security plane. The bullet items include the following:

Features

)

TLS-Transport Layer Security

ISO/TS 21177: https://www.iso.org/standard/70056.html

Slide 58:

Role of 1609.2: Security Services

Additional Features

SCMS-Security Credential Management System

Slide 59:

Communication Security Aspects

WAVE Security Services

CRL-Certificate Revocation List

Slide 60:

Role of 1609.2: Security Services

Digital Certificate Defines Credentials Granted

Author's relevant description: Key Message: Digital certificate uses PSID and permissions originating at higher entity-application source. [1609.2 standard defines secure message formats and processing for use by Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) devices, including methods to secure WAVE management messages and methods to secure application messages. It also describes administrative functions necessary to support the core security functions.] With the Digital Certificate, actually, while the PSID only identifies the application, the associated SSP indicates the authorizations for the device. The identifier field is a field that can be used to carry a “name” for the certificate holder. So it identifies the entity holding the certificate, while the PSID/SSP identify the entity’s permissions. 1609.2 doesn’t define any uses for the identifier field (except in some very specific circumstances around certificate management).

Source: William Whyte

Certificate Authority (CA)

Slide 61:

Example: Certificate SSP in TSP V2I Application

SSP authorizes Transit/Emergency vehicles to make priority request; others may have various levels of permission (if any)

The slide shows a picture of a traffic signal head.

Author's relevant description: Depicts a TSP layout to the right. A moving bus is shown with an optical transmitter in the middle lane, traveling to left. Traffic signal will serve the priority request made by the bus. The purpose of the layout is to illustrate SSP role: A signal controller, a pedestrian, a bus, and an emergency vehicle might all support the signal priority application, but the signal only serves the request while the others have various levels of permission (SSP) as to what type of request (per, priority, preemption) they can request.

Slide 62:

Role of 1609.2: Security Services

Role of Application in Signing a Message

Signing focuses on integrity, encryption is for confidentiality.

Slide 63:

Role of 1609.2: Security Services

Security Considerations for WSA

WSA-WAVE Service Advertisement
SPDU- Secured Protocol Data Unit

Slide 64:

WAVE Implementation Challenges

Key Areas

MPO-Metropolitan Planning Organization

Checklist icon used to indicate a process that is being laid out sequentially.

Slide 65:

Stakeholders-Specific Issues

Please see extended text description below.

(Extended Text Description: This slide shows relationship between Stakeholders and Issues. On the left the Stakeholders text is bracketed to the right with the bullet list of issues:

Stakeholders

Public Agencies
Vehicle Designers
OEM Manufacturers
ASD Vendors
Developers of Applications/Standards
Testing Engineers
Certification Groups
Academic Researchers
Vehicle/Fleet Owners

Issues

)

Checklist icon used to indicate a process that is being laid out sequentially.

Slide 66:

Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement (PICS)

Please see extended text description below.

(Extended Text Description: This slide contains a table labeled PICS Sample Portion (Full Table on page 118, IEEE 1609.3 with the following table data:

Item Feature Value Reference Status Support
N1 DATA PLANE - -
N1.1. LLC 5.2 M YES
N1.1.1. LLC extensions for WSMP 7.5 N1.3:M YES
N1.2. IPv6 5.3, 6.4 O1 YES
N1.2.1. Use stateless configuration 6.4 O
N1.2.2. IP readdressing 6.4.2 M
N1.2.3. Send IP datagrams 5.3 O2
N1.2.4. Receive IP datagrams 5.3 O2
N1.2.4.1. Receive by link-local address 6.4 M
N1.2.4.2. Receive by global address 6.4 M YES
N1.2.4.3. Receive by host multicast addresses 6.4 O3
N1.2.4.4. Receive by router multicast addresses 6.4 O3
N1.2.5. UDP 5.4 O
N1.2.6. TCP 5.4 O YES
N1.2.7. Other IETF protocols ()a 5.4 O
N1.3. WSMP 5.5 O1
N1.3.1. WSM reception 5.5.3 O4
N1.3.1.1. Check WSMP Version number ()b 5.5.3, 8.3.2 M
N1.3.1.2. Check Subtype field ()r 5.5.3, 8.3.2 M YES
N1.3.1.3. Check TPID ()s 5.5.3, 8.3.2 M
N1.3.1.4. Wave Info Elem Extension field 8.1.1 M
N1.3.1.5. Deliver message based on Address Info (PSID) 5.5.3 M

Additionally, the status cells on rows N1.1. and N1.1.3 are outlined in red, the Support cells of rows N1.1., N1.1.1., N1.2., N1.2.4.2., N1.2.6. and N1.3. through N1.3.1.5. are labeled with a green "YES". And above the Support column is the text "Illustration" pointing to the YES in row N1.1., and to the right of the table is a box with the text "My agency anticipates large data transfers, so I need both IPv6 and WSMP" pointing to the Support cells of the relevant table sections of IPv6 and WSMP.")

M-Mandatory, O-Optional

Checklist icon used to indicate a process that is being laid out sequentially.

Slide 67:

Who Benefits from use of PICS

In General, CV Project Deployment Stakeholders Benefit from the Project Level PICS

Specifically,

  1. An implementer of WAVE devices may use the PICS to indicate which features are supported by an implementation.
  2. A vendor "unambiguously knows", upfront, what project needs are and no finger pointing….avoid disputes later.
  3. A tester may use the PICS as a checklist against which to verify conformance.
  4. A system integrator's "peace of mind" …at end of project interoperable devices will function as intended for safety/mobility applications in CV environment.

Checklist icon used to indicate a process that is being laid out sequentially.

Slide 68:

Multivendor Relationships

System Integration Across Devices: "What are we procuring?"

Author's relevant description: A Photo of a traffic ATC controller is shown at right most corner, in the center a photo of RSU, and to the left side, a series of ASD installations of taxis at top, buses below that and large trucks below buses images; all are shown with arrows from middle RSU antenna. The figure has the text Vendor resistance to providing necessary information.

Slide 69:

US CV Deployments (67 planned, 57 operational)

Author's relevant description, for example only: Uses of the 5.9 GHz band: Connected Vehicle Deployment Locations - Planned and Operational. This slide shows US DSRC deployments across the United States. The US Map shows CV deployments as of 2/2020. Range of deployments is noteworthy as major cities and regions are gearing up for this evolving technology. This map also touch base with deployment projects that may be expanded in urban areas as we progress further into CV implementations. SPaT applications are highlighted with arrows pointing to several locations on the map.

Slide 70:

WAVE Devices Implementation (CV Pilots)

Wyoming Pilot (WYDOT) Complete Target
WYDOT Maintenance Fleet Subsystem On-Board Unit (OBU) 35 90
Integrated Commercial Truck Subsystem OBU 0 25
Retrofit Vehicle Subsystem OBU 17 255
WYDOT Highway Patrol 0 35
Total Equipped Vehicles 52 ~405
Roadside Units (RSU) along 1-80 75 75
Tampa Pilot (THEA) Complete Target
Private Light-Duty Vehicles Equipped with On-Board Unit (OBU) 727 1,080
HART Transit Bus Equipped with OBU 7 10
TECO Line Street Car Equipped with OBU 8 8
Total Equipped Vehicles 742 ~1,100
Roadside Units (RSU) at Downtown Intersections 47 47

Devices use WAVE Standards (2016) v3

Source: USDOT 3/1/2020

Slide 71:

WAVE Devices Implementation: NYC Pilot Project

Author's relevant description, for example only: A traffic signal head photo is shown at the right top of the slide (Typical RSU Installation), a table at bottom shows some wiring equipment (CV equipment) and to the left an overheap map layout of RSU on 34th Street is depicted.

Slide 72:

Lessons Learned from Deployments

Author's relevant description: An actual photo of testing site inside a park is depicting two vehicles, one from TEMPA and one from NYC CV pilots, with an arch showing wireless connection with interoperabity in mind. CV Pilots progress reports/current activities available at https://www.its.dot.gov/pilots/index.htm

Slide 73:

Lessons Learned from Deployments (cont.)

What have we tested?

✓ V2V/V2I Communications

✓ Interoperability, tested the reception of OTA (broadcasts) messages; BSMs, SPaT/MAP

Author's relevant description: The slide shows the cover page of the published test report to the right Connected Vehicle Pilots Phase 2 Interoperability Test, and the report cover page shows at bottom a photo of two cars and some cones around them.

Applications performance testing done separately by CV Pilots within their own test programs.

OTA-Over The Air

Slide 74:

This slide contains a graphic with the word "Case Study" in large letters. A placeholder graphic of a traffic control center indicating that a real-world case study follows.

Slide 75:

WAVE Devices Testing for Interoperability

Author's relevant description: The slide shows a FDOT report cover page to the left and at the top right corner a set up of test equipment used in the testing process, and at right bottom an ATC controller is shown.

Source: http://www.cflsmartroads.com/projects/CVAV_D5_Testing.html

Slide 76:

Testing Strategy: Test Equipment + Messages

Lab Setup included a total of 21 manufacturers and 3 types of devices

Field test validation at two locations, to test end-to-end communication (transmit/receive)

Author's relevant description: Key Message: RSU/OBUs must speak the same language and conform to BSM messages as per SAE standards. Without interoperability, WAVE communications may not result as intended. The testing strategy consisted of the vendors first meeting at the Seminole County test lab. The vendors then were asked to perform various tests by configuring their units and hooking up to the controllers to ensure the successful transmitting and receiving of various messages (BSMs, MAP, TIM,SPaT, EVP, and TSP). On the subsequent days, field visits were done and/or additional testing at the lab was performed where needed.” Prior to the scheduled vendor visits, the Evaluation Team conducted their independent lab interoperability testing which included webinars with vendors. All video webinars and initial lab interoperability testing notes were recorded, documented, and placed on the FDOT District 5 FRAME SharePoint site.

SPaT-Signal Phasing and Timing
TIM-Traveler Information Messages
EVP-Emergency vehicle Pre-emption

Slide 77:

WAVE Device and "Standards Conformance"

Conformance is defined as the adherence of an implementation to the requirements of one or more specific standard or technical specifications

-ISO/IEC 10641:1993

WAVE device is defined as a device that is conformant to the following standards:

Source: IEEE 1609.0 (2019) page 25

Slide 78:

WAVE Device and "Standards Conformance"

For IEEE Std 1609.3 conformance, a device implements at least the following features:

For IEEE Std 1609.4 conformance, a device implements at least the following features:

EDCA-Enhanced Channel Distributed Access
OCBA-Outside the Context of a Basic Service

Source: IEEE 1609.0 (2019) page 25

Slide 79:

Example for Compliance Language for Dual Radios

Please see extended text description below.

(Extended Text Description: This slide contains the following text, with section 4.8.2.2 outlined in red:

4.8.2 DSRC

4.8.2.1 FCC Regulation 47 CFR Compliance: The RSU shall comply with Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Code of Federal Regulations title 47 Parts 0, 1, 2, 15, 90, and 95.

4.8.2.2 Each RSU shall include 2 radios capable of operating on all 7 channels of the DSRC spectrum and capable of having their output level modified for each channel and each message.

4.8.2.3 Nominally one channel will be 172 and shall monitor the BSM messages, and transmit the SPaT, MAP, and RTCM messages.

4.8.2.4 The second channel will be 178 and shall alternate or change between channels and modes for the support of IP communications and the messages necessary for the CVPD support of software and parameter updates and log downloads to the TMC.)

Source: City of New York, RSU Specification, 2017, page 81

https://www.cvp.nyc/proiect-status

Radio Transmission Commission for Maritime Services (RTCM)

Checklist icon used to indicate a process that is being laid out sequentially.

Slide 80:

Activity Placeholder: This slide has the word “Activity” in large letters at the top of the slide, with a graphic of a hand on a computer keyboard below it.

Slide 81:

Question

Which of the following is an Incorrect statement? Answer Choices

  1. WAVE supports both WSMP and IPv6 protocols.
  2. Compliant WAVE devices are typically interoperable.
  3. PICS should be included in a CV project specification.
  4. WSA broadcasts opportunity on any channel.

Slide 82:

Review of Answers

A small graphical red and yellow X representing incorrect.a) WAVE supports both WSMP and IPv6 protocols.
Incorrect. WAVE supports both protocols.

A small graphical red and yellow X representing incorrect.b) Compliant WAVE devices are typically interoperable.
Incorrect. They are tested for messages exchange for interoperability.

A small graphical red and yellow X representing incorrect.c) PICS should be included in the CV project specification.
Incorrect. PICS can be used as a checklist for conformance to WAVE standards.

A small graphical green and yellow check mark representing correct.d) WSA broadcasts opportunity on any channel.
Correct Answer! WSA is typically issued on CCH 178.

Slide 83:

CV Technical Resources

Supplement icon indicating items or information that are further explained/detailed in the Student Supplement.

Slide 84:

CV Training Modules Available

https://www.pcb.its.dot.gov/stds modules.aspx

Slide 85:

Learning Objectives

Slide 86:

Thank you for completing this module

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