Module 64 - CSE202

Module CSE202: Introduction to Cybersecurity for Transportation Agencies

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CSE202: Introduction to Cybersecurity for Transportation Agencies

 

Table of Contents

Module Description - 2

Introduction/Purpose - 2

Supporting Information - 2

Reference to Other Standards - 10

Glossary - 10

References - 11

Study Questions - 12

Appendix: NIST Functions, Categories and Subcategories - 13

Icon Guide - 27

 

1. Module Description

The Introduction to Cybersecurity for Transportation Agencies module will provide an overview of key topics relating to cybersecurity for transportation agencies.

 

2. Introduction/Purpose

The module will first discuss the need for cybersecurity including typical threats that transportation agencies face to their centers, field equipment, and communications. Next, the module will introduce the NIST Cybersecurity Framework which enables organizations to apply the principles and best practices of risk management to improving security and resilience. Then the module will discuss how to apply the Framework to a transportation agency. Finally, the module will look at resources that are available to agencies for sharing information about cybersecurity threats and incidents. Additional resources on cybersecurity for the roadway transportation infrastructure will be identified.

 

3. Supporting Information

3.1. Critical Infrastructure

The Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) was established November 16th, 2018. It is a standalone United States federal agency, an operational component under Department of Homeland Security (DHS) oversight. Its activities are a continuation of the National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD). NPPD’s goal was to advance the Department’s national security mission by reducing and eliminating threats to U.S. critical physical and cyber infrastructure. Critical infrastructure describes the physical and cyber systems and assets that are so vital to the United States that their incapacity or destruction would have a debilitating impact on our physical or economic security or public health or safety. CISA has identified 16 critical infrastructures as discussed below.

Chemical Sector
The Department of Homeland Security is designated as the Sector-Specific Agency for the Chemical Sector.

Commercial Facilities Sector
The Department of Homeland Security is designated as the Sector-Specific Agency for the Commercial Facilities Sector, which includes a diverse range of sites that draw large crowds of people for shopping, business, entertainment, or lodging.

Communications Sector
The Communications Sector is an integral component of the U.S. economy, underlying the operations of all businesses, public safety organizations, and government. The Department of Homeland Security is the Sector-Specific Agency for the Communications Sector.

Critical Manufacturing Sector
The Department of Homeland Security is designated as the Sector-Specific Agency for the Critical Manufacturing Sector.

Dams Sector
The Department of Homeland Security is designated as the Sector-Specific Agency for the Dams Sector. The Dams Sector comprises dam projects, navigation locks, levees, hurricane barriers, mine tailings impoundments, and other similar water retention and/or control facilities.

Defense Industrial Base Sector
The U.S. Department of Defense is the Sector-Specific Agency for the Defense Industrial Base Sector. The Defense Industrial Base Sector enables research, development, design, production, delivery, and maintenance of military weapons systems, subsystems, and components or parts to meet U.S. military requirements.

Emergency Services Sector
The Department of Homeland Security is designated as the Sector-Specific Agency for the Emergency Services Sector. The sector provides a wide range of prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery services during both day-to-day operations and incident response.

Energy Sector
The U.S. energy infrastructure fuels the economy of the 21st century. The Department of Energy is the Sector-Specific Agency for the Energy Sector.

Financial Services Sector
The Department of the Treasury is designated as the Sector-Specific Agency for the Financial Services Sector.

Food and Agriculture Sector
The Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services are designated as the Co-Sector-Specific Agencies for the Food and Agriculture Sector.

Government Facilities Sector
The Department of Homeland Security and the General Services Administration are designated as the Co-Sector-Specific Agencies for the Government Facilities Sector.

Healthcare and Public Health Sector
The Department of Health and Human Services is designated as the Sector-Specific Agency for the Healthcare and Public Health Sector.

Information Technology Sector
The Department of Homeland Security is designated as the Sector-Specific Agency for the Information Technology Sector.

Nuclear Reactors, Materials, and Waste Sector
The Department of Homeland Security is designated as the Sector-Specific Agency for the Nuclear Reactors, Materials, and Waste Sector.

Transportation Systems Sector
The Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Transportation are designated as the Co-Sector-Specific Agencies for the Transportation Systems Sector.

Water and Wastewater Systems Sector
The Environmental Protection Agency is designated as the Sector-Specific Agency for the Water and Wastewater Systems Sector.

3.2. Transportation Systems Sector

Aviation includes aircraft, air traffic control systems, and about 19,700 airports, heliports, and landing strips. Approximately 500 provide commercial aviation services at civil and joint-use military airports, heliports, and sea plane bases. In addition, the aviation mode includes commercial and recreational aircraft (manned and unmanned) and a wide-variety of support services, such as aircraft repair stations, fueling facilities, navigation aids, and flight schools.

Highway and Motor Carrier encompasses more than 4 million miles of roadway, more than 600,000 bridges, and more than 350 tunnels. Vehicles include trucks, including those carrying hazardous materials; other commercial vehicles, including commercial motor coaches and school buses; vehicle and driver licensing systems; traffic management systems; and cyber systems used for operational management.

Maritime Transportation System consists of about 95,000 miles of coastline, 361 ports, more than 25,000 miles of waterways, and intermodal landside connections that allow the various modes of transportation to move people and goods to, from, and on the water.

Mass Transit and Passenger Rail includes terminals, operational systems, and supporting infrastructure for passenger services by transit buses, trolleybuses, monorail, heavy rail also known as subways or metros—light rail, passenger rail, and vanpool/rideshare. Public transportation and passenger rail operations provided an estimated 10.8 billion passenger trips in 2014.

Pipeline Systems consist of more than 2.5 million miles of pipelines spanning the country and carry nearly all of the nation’s natural gas and about 65 percent of hazardous liquids, as well as various chemicals. Above-ground assets, such as compressor stations and pumping stations, are also included.

Freight Rail consists of seven major carriers, hundreds of smaller railroads, over 138,000 miles of active railroad, over 1.33 million freight cars, and approximately 20,000 locomotives. An estimated 12,000 trains operate daily. The Department of Defense has designated 30,000 miles of track and structure as critical to mobilization and resupply of U.S. forces.

Postal and Shipping moves about 720 million letters and packages each day and includes large integrated carriers, regional and local courier services, mail services, mail management firms, and chartered and delivery services.

3.3. Types of Hackers

Black Hat Hackers

White Hat Hackers

Grey Hat Hackers

Blue Hat Hacker

Red Hat Hacker

Script Kiddie

Green Hat Hacker

Social Engineering Hackers

Hactivists

Cyber Terrorist:

State/Nation Sponsored Hackers:

Malicious Insider/Whistle-blower Hacker

Elite Hackers

 

3.4. Sources of Cyber Attacks

3.5. Types of Attacks and Threats

The definitions above are taken from the NIST Cybersecurity Glossary (regular text above) or Wikipedia (italics text above) for those entries not contained in the NIST Glossary.

 

3.6. NIST Cybersecurity Framework

Learning objectives 2 and 3 focus on information from the NIST Cybersecurity Framework which can be found on the NIST website at:

https://www.nist.gov/cyberframework/framework

The following overview is taken directly from the NIST Cybersecurity Framework document (National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Cybersecurity Framework Version 1.1).

"The Framework is a risk-based approach to managing cybersecurity risk, and is composed of three parts: the Framework Core, the Framework Implementation Tiers, and the Framework Profiles. Each Framework component reinforces the connection between business/mission drivers and cybersecurity activities. These components are explained below.

The Framework Core is composed of a set of categories, subcategories and informative references within each of five basic functions. The Appendix provides a table that shows these functions, categories, and subcategories exactly as described in the Framework Document.

The descriptions above are specific sections of standards, guidelines, and practices common among critical infrastructure sectors that illustrate a method to achieve the outcomes associated with each subcategory. The references presented in the Framework Core are illustrative and not exhaustive. They are based upon cross-sector guidance most frequently referenced during the Framework development process." The following are the informative references from the framework:

 

4. Reference to Other Standards

 

5. Glossary

To include additional descriptions/acronyms used in the module. Definitions of terms are taken from NIST Internal or Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7298 Revision 3: Glossary of Key Information Security Terms unless otherwise indicated.

Term Definition
AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
Attack Vector An attack vector is a path or means by which a hacker (or cracker) can gain access to a computer or network server in order to deliver a payload or malicious outcome.
whatis.techtarget.com/
Cyber Attack An attack, via cyberspace, targeting an enterprise’s use of cyberspace for the purpose of disrupting, disabling, destroying, or maliciously controlling a computing environment/infrastructure; or destroying the integrity of the data or stealing controlled information. [NISTIR 7298 Rev 3]
Cybersecurity The ability to protect or defend the use of cyberspace from cyberattacks. [NISTIR 7298 Rev 3]
Cyberspace A global domain within the information environment consisting of the interdependent network of information systems infrastructures including the Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems, and embedded processors and controllers. [NISTIR 7298 Rev 3]
DDOS Distributed denial-of-service
DE Detect- one of five NIST Framework functions
DHS Department of Homeland Security
DOS Denial-of-service
DOT Department of Transportation
EO Executive Order
FHWA Federal Highway Administration
ICS-CERT Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Readiness Team
ID Identify- one of five NIST Framework functions
IOO Infrastructure owner/operators
ISAC Information Sharing and Analysis Center
ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers
ITS Intelligent Transportation System
JPO Joint Program Office
MitM Man-in-the-middle
MS-ISAC Multi-State ISAC
NCCIC National Cybersecurity and Communications and Integration Center
NEMA National Equipment Manufacturer’s Association
NFCA National Fusion Center Association
NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology
NTCIP National Transportation Communications for ITS Protocol
PPD Presidential Policy Directive
PR Protect - one of five NIST Framework functions
RC Recover- one of five NIST Framework functions
Resilience The ability to quickly adapt and recover from any known or unknown changes to the environment through holistic implementation of risk management, contingency, and continuity planning. [NISTIR 7298 Rev 3]
RS Respond- one of five NIST Framework functions
SLTT State, local, territorial and tribal
ST-ISAC Surface Transportation ISAC
USA United States of America
USDOT United States Department of Transportation

 

6. References

 

7. Study Questions

To include the quiz/poll questions and answer choices as presented in the PowerPoint slide to allow students to either follow along with the recording or refer to the quiz at a later date in the supplement. Do not indicate the correct/incorrect answers here.

1. Which of the following is a true statement?

  1. Modern transportation controllers are less sophisticated than other cyber devices and easier to protect
  2. Cybersecurity is an IT responsibility only
  3. Traffic Ops needs to protect external any cloud-based systems used
  4. Transportation infrastructure could be a target for a state-sponsored cyber attack

2. Which of the following is NOT one of the NIST Functions?

  1. Identify
  2. Defend
  3. Detect
  4. Respond
  5. Recover

3. Which of the following is a correct statement?

  1. A Tier represents the maturity level of the organization
  2. Profiles always represent cybersecurity outcomes currently achieved
  3. Outcomes from using the Framework should reflect in operations
  4. Self-assessment is a one-time step at the beginning of a cyber program

4. Which group cannot be a member of MS-ISAC?

  1. State Transportation Agencies
  2. Municipal Transportation Agencies
  3. ITS Vendors
  4. County Transportation Agencies

 

Appendix: NIST Functions, Categories, and Subcategories

Function Category Subcategory
IDENTIFY (ID) Asset Management (ID.AM): The data, personnel, devices, systems, and facilities that enable the organization to achieve business purposes are identified and managed consistent with their relative importance to organizational objectives and the organization’s risk strategy. ID.AM-1: Physical devices and systems within the organization are inventoried
ID.AM-2: Software platforms and applications within the organization are inventoried
ID.AM-3: Organizational communication and data flows are mapped
ID.AM-4: External information systems are catalogued
ID.AM-5: Resources (e.g., hardware, devices, data, time, personnel, and software) are prioritized based on their classification, criticality, and business value
ID.AM-6: Cybersecurity roles and responsibilities for the entire workforce and third-party stakeholders (e.g., suppliers, customers, partners) are established
Business Environment (ID.BE): The organization’s mission, objectives, stakeholders, and activities are understood and prioritized; this information is used to inform cybersecurity roles, responsibilities, and risk management decisions. ID.BE-1: The organization’s role in the supply chain is identified and communicated
ID.BE-2: The organization’s place in critical infrastructure and its industry sector is identified and communicated
ID.BE-3: Priorities for organizational mission, objectives, and activities are established and communicated
ID.BE-4: Dependencies and critical functions for delivery of critical services are established
ID.BE-5: Resilience requirements to support delivery of critical services are established for all operating states (e.g. under duress/attack, during recovery, normal operations)
Governance (ID.GV): The policies, procedures, and processes to manage and monitor the organization’s regulatory, legal, risk, environmental, and operational requirements are understood and inform the management of cybersecurity risk. ID.GV-1: Organizational cybersecurity policy is established and communicated
ID.GV-2: Cybersecurity roles and responsibilities are coordinated and aligned with internal roles and external partners
ID.GV-3: Legal and regulatory requirements regarding cybersecurity, including privacy and civil liberties obligations, are understood and managed
ID.GV-4: Governance and risk management processes address cybersecurity risks
Risk Assessment (ID.RA): The organization understands the cybersecurity risk to organizational operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), organizational assets, and individuals. ID.RA-1: Asset vulnerabilities are identified and documented
ID.RA-2: Cyber threat intelligence is received from information sharing forums and sources
ID.RA-3: Threats, both internal and external, are identified and documented
ID.RA-4: Potential business impacts and likelihoods are identified
ID.RA-5: Threats, vulnerabilities, likelihoods, and impacts are used to determine risk
ID.RA-6: Risk responses are identified and prioritized
Risk Management Strategy (ID.RM): The organization’s priorities, constraints, risk tolerances, and assumptions are established and used to support operational risk decisions. ID.RM-1: Risk management processes are established, managed, and agreed to by organizational stakeholders
ID.RM-2: Organizational risk tolerance is determined and clearly expressed
ID.RM-3: The organization’s determination of risk tolerance is informed by its role in critical infrastructure and sector specific risk analysis
Supply Chain Risk Management (ID.SC): The organization’s priorities, constraints, risk tolerances, and assumptions are established and used to support risk decisions associated with managing supply chain risk. The organization has established and implemented the processes to identify, assess, and manage supply chain risks. ID.SC-1: Cyber supply chain risk management processes are identified, established, assessed, managed, and agreed to by organizational stakeholders
ID.SC-2: Suppliers and third party partners of information systems, components, and services are identified, prioritized, and assessed using a cyber supply chain risk assessment process
ID.SC-3: Contracts with suppliers and third-party partners are used to implement appropriate measures designed to meet the objectives of an organization’s cybersecurity program and Cyber Supply Chain Risk Management Plan.
ID.SC-4: Suppliers and third-party partners are routinely assessed using audits, test results, or other forms of evaluations to confirm they are meeting their contractual obligations.
ID.SC-5: Response and recovery planning and testing are conducted with suppliers and third-party providers
PROTECT (PR) Identity Management, Authentication and Access Control (PR.AC): Access to physical and logical assets and associated facilities is limited to authorized users, processes, and devices, and is managed consistent with the assessed risk of unauthorized access to authorized activities and transactions. PR.AC-1: Identities and credentials are issued, managed, verified, revoked, and audited for authorized devices, users and processes
PR.AC-2: Physical access to assets is managed and protected
PR.AC-3: Remote access is managed
PR.AC-4: Access permissions and authorizations are managed, incorporating the principles of least privilege and separation of duties
PR.AC-5: Network integrity is protected (e.g., network segregation, network segmentation)
PR.AC-6: Identities are proofed and bound to credentials and asserted in interactions
PR.AC-7: Users, devices, and other assets are authenticated (e.g., single-factor, multi-factor) commensurate with the risk of the transaction (e.g., individuals’ security and privacy risks and other organizational risks)
Awareness and Training (PR.AT): The organization’s personnel and partners are provided cybersecurity awareness education and are trained to perform their cybersecurity-related duties and responsibilities consistent with related policies, procedures, and agreements. PR.AT-1: All users are informed and trained
PR.AT-2: Privileged users understand their roles and responsibilities
PR.AT-3: Third-party stakeholders (e.g., suppliers, customers, partners) understand their roles and responsibilities
PR.AT-4: Senior executives understand their roles and responsibilities
PR.AT-5: Physical and cybersecurity personnel understand their roles and responsibilities
Data Security (PR.DS): Information and records (data) are managed consistent with the organization’s risk strategy to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information. PR.DS-1: Data-at-rest is protected
PR.DS-2: Data-in-transit is protected
PR.DS-3: Assets are formally managed throughout removal, transfers, and disposition
PR.DS-4: Adequate capacity to ensure availability is maintained
PR.DS-5: Protections against data leaks are implemented
PR.DS-6: Integrity checking mechanisms are used to verify software, firmware, and information integrity
PR.DS-7: The development and testing environment(s) are separate from the production environment
PR.DS-8: Integrity checking mechanisms are used to verify hardware integrity
Information Protection Processes and Procedures (PR.IP): Security policies (that address purpose, scope, roles, responsibilities, management commitment, and coordination among organizational entities), processes, and procedures are maintained and used to manage protection of information systems and assets. PR.IP-1: A baseline configuration of information technology/industrial control systems is created and maintained incorporating security principles (e.g., concept of least functionality)
PR.IP-2: A System Development Life Cycle to manage systems is implemented
PR.IP-3: Configuration change control processes are in place
PR.IP-4: Backups of information are conducted, maintained, and tested
PR.IP-5: Policy and regulations regarding the physical operating environment for organizational assets are met
PR.IP-6: Data is destroyed according to policy
PR.IP-7: Protection processes are improved
PR.IP-8: Effectiveness of protection technologies is shared
PR.IP-9: Response plans (Incident Response and Business Continuity) and recovery plans (Incident Recovery and Disaster Recovery) are in place and managed
PR.IP-10: Response and recovery plans are tested
PR.IP-11: Cybersecurity is included in human resources practices (e.g., deprovisioning, personnel screening)
PR.IP-12: A vulnerability management plan is developed and implemented
Maintenance (PR.MA): Maintenance and repairs of industrial control and information system components are performed consistent with policies and procedures. PR.MA-1: Maintenance and repair of organizational assets are performed and logged, with approved and controlled tools
PR.MA-2: Remote maintenance of organizational assets is approved, logged, and performed in a manner that prevents unauthorized access
Protective Technology (PR.PT): Technical security solutions are managed to ensure the security and resilience of systems and assets, consistent with related policies, procedures, and agreements. PR.PT-1: Audit/log records are determined, documented, implemented, and reviewed in accordance with policy
PR.PT-2: Removable media is protected and its use restricted according to policy
PR.PT-3: The principle of least functionality is incorporated by configuring systems to provide only essential capabilities
PR.PT-4: Communications and control networks are protected
PR.PT-5: Mechanisms (e.g., failsafe, load balancing, hot swap) are implemented to achieve resilience requirements in normal and adverse situations
DETECT (DE) Anomalies and Events (DE.AE): Anomalous activity is detected and the potential impact of events is understood. DE.AE-1: A baseline of network operations and expected data flows for users and systems is established and managed
DE.AE-2: Detected events are analyzed to understand attack targets and methods
DE.AE-3: Event data are collected and correlated from multiple sources and sensors
DE.AE-4: Impact of events is determined
DE.AE-5: Incident alert thresholds are established
Security Continuous Monitoring (DE.CM): The information system and assets are monitored to identify cybersecurity events and verify the effectiveness of protective measures. DE.CM-1: The network is monitored to detect potential cybersecurity events
DE.CM-2: The physical environment is monitored to detect potential cybersecurity events
DE.CM-3: Personnel activity is monitored to detect potential cybersecurity events
DE.CM-4: Malicious code is detected
DE.CM-5: Unauthorized mobile code is detected
DE.CM-6: External service provider activity is monitored to detect potential cybersecurity events
DE.CM-7: Monitoring for unauthorized personnel, connections, devices, and software is performed
DE.CM-8: Vulnerability scans are performed
Detection Processes (DE.DP): Detection processes and procedures are maintained and tested to ensure awareness of anomalous events. DE.DP-1: Roles and responsibilities for detection are well defined to ensure accountability
DE.DP-2: Detection activities comply with all applicable requirements
DE.DP-3: Detection processes are tested
DE.DP-4: Event detection information is communicated
DE.DP-5: Detection processes are continuously improved
RESPOND (RS) Response Planning (RS.RP): Response processes and procedures are executed and maintained, to ensure response to detected cybersecurity incidents. RS.RP-1: Response plan is executed during or after an incident
Communications (RS.CO): Response activities are coordinated with internal and external stakeholders (e.g., external support from law enforcement agencies). RS.CO-1: Personnel know their roles and order of operations when a response is needed
RS.CO-2: Incidents are reported consistent with established criteria
RS.CO-3: Information is shared consistent with response plans
RS.CO-4: Coordination with stakeholders occurs consistent with response plans
RS.CO-5: Voluntary information sharing occurs with external stakeholders to achieve broader cybersecurity situational awareness
Analysis (RS.AN): Analysis is conducted to ensure effective response and support recovery activities. RS.AN-1: Notifications from detection systems are investigated
RS.AN-2: The impact of the incident is understood
RS.AN-3: Forensics are performed
RS.AN-4: Incidents are categorized consistent with response plans
RS.AN-5: Processes are established to receive, analyze and respond to vulnerabilities disclosed to the organization from internal and external sources (e.g., internal testing, security bulletins, or security researchers)
Mitigation (RS.MI): Activities are performed to prevent expansion of an event, mitigate its effects, and resolve the incident. RS.MI-1: Incidents are contained
RS.MI-2: Incidents are mitigated
RS.MI-3: Newly identified vulnerabilities are mitigated or documented as accepted risks
Improvements (RS.IM): Organizational response activities are improved by incorporating lessons learned from current and previous detection/response activities. RS.IM-1: Response plans incorporate lessons learned
RS.IM-2: Response strategies are updated
RECOVER (RC) Recovery Planning (RC.RP): Recovery processes and procedures are executed and maintained to ensure restoration of systems or assets affected by cybersecurity incidents. RC.RP-1: Recovery plan is executed during or after a cybersecurity incident
Improvements (RC.IM): Recovery planning and processes are improved by incorporating lessons learned into future activities. RC.IM-1: Recovery plans incorporate lessons learned
RC.IM-2: Recovery strategies are updated
Communications (RC.CO): Restoration activities are coordinated with internal and external parties (e.g., coordinating centers, Internet Service Providers, owners of attacking systems, victims, other CSIRTs, and vendors). RC.CO-1: Public relations are managed
RC.CO-2: Reputation is repaired after an incident
RC.CO-3: Recovery activities are communicated to internal and external stakeholders as well as executive and management teams

 

8. Icon Guide

The following icons are used throughout the module to visually indicate the corresponding learning concept listed out below, and/or to highlight a specific point in the training material.

1) Background information: General knowledge that is available elsewhere and is outside the module being presented. This will be used primarily in the beginning of slide set when reviewing information readers are expected to already know.

Background information icon indicates general knowledge that is available elsewhere and is outside the module being presented.

2) Tools/Applications: An industry-specific item a person would use to accomplish a specific task and applying that tool to fit your need.

Tools/Applications icon. An industry-specific item a person would use to accomplish a specific task, and applying that tool to fit your need.

3) Remember: Used when referencing something already discussed in the module that is necessary to recount.

Remember icon. Used when referencing something already discussed in the module that is necessary to recount.

4) Refer to Student Supplement: Items or information that are further explained/detailed in the Student Supplement.

Supplement icon indicating items or information that are further explained/detailed in the Student Supplement.

5) Example: Can be real-world (case study), hypothetical, a sample of a table, etc.

Example icon. Can be real-world (case study), hypothetical, a sample of a table, etc.

6) Checklist: Use to indicate a process that is being laid out sequentially.

Checklist icon used to indicate a process that is being laid out sequentially.

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