ITS Transit Standards Professional Capacity Building Program

Module 1: Introduction to Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Transit Standards

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Slide 1:

Welcome - Graphic image of introductory slide. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: Welcome - Graphic image of introductory slide. A large dark blue rectangle with a wide, light grid pattern at the top half and bands of dark and lighter blue bands below. There is a white square ITS logo box with words "Standards ITS Training" in green and blue on the middle left side. The word "Welcome" in white is to the right of the logo. Under the logo box is the logo for the U.S. Department of Transpotation, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology.)

Slide 2:

Welcome slide with Ken Leonard and screen capture of home webpage. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This slide, entitled "Welcome" has a photo of Ken Leonard, Director, ITS Joint Program Office, on the left hand side, with his email address, Ken.Leonard@dot.gov. A screen capture snapshot of the home webpage is found on the right hand side - for illustration only - from August 2014. Below this image is a link to the current website: www.pcb.its.dot.gov - this screen capture snapshot shows an example from the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Development - Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office - ITS Professional Capacity Building Program/Advanced ITS Education. Below the main site banner, it shows the main navigation menu with the following items: About, ITS Training, Knowledge Exchange, Technology Transfer, ITS in Academics, and Media Library. Below the main navigation menu, the page shows various content of the website, including a graphic image of professionals seated in a room during a training program. A text overlay has the text Welcome to ITS Professional Capacity Building. Additional content on the page includes a box entitled What's New and a section labeled Free Training. Again, this image serves for illustration only. The current website link is: http://www.pcb.its.dot.gov.)

Slide 3:

ITS Transit Standards Professional Capacity Building Program

Module 1:

Introduction to Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Transit Standards

Bruce Eisenhart

Slide 4:

Activity. A placeholder graphic with an image of hand over a computer keyboard to show that an activity is taking place.

Slide 5:

Instructor

Head shot photo of the instructor, Bruce Eisenhart.

Bruce S. Eisenhart
Vice President, Operations
Consensus Systems Technologies
Centreville, VA, USA

Slide 6:

Target Audience

Slide 7:

Recommended Prerequisite(s)

None. This is the Introductory Module in the series of Transit Standards modules.

Slide 8:

Curriculum Path (Decision-maker)

Curriculum Path for Decision Maker. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: Curriculum Path for Decision Maker. A graphical illustration indicating the sequence of training modules and where this module fits in. Each module is represented by a box with the name of the module in it and a flow chart showing the logical flow of the modules with the current module boxed in red. The first three boxes are green and aligned horizontally, green signifying "Recommended Pre-requisites." The first box is "Introduction to ITS Transit Standards, Module 1", which is outlined in red. Below that, connected by a line, is a box with the text "Transit Management, Part 1 of 2." Below that, connected by a line, is a box with the text, "TCIP, Part 1 of 2." From here, the lines branch out into three text boxes that are horizontally sequenced and are in blue, signifying "Optional Modules." These three boxes are: "Traveler Information, Part 1 of 2", "Electronic Fare Payment Systems," and "Transit and the Connected Vehicle Environment/Emerging Technologies, Applications, and Future Platforms.")

Slide 9:

Curriculum Path (Project Manager)

Curriculum Path for Project Manager. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: Curriculum Path for Project Manager. A graphical illustration indicating the sequence of training modules and where this module fits in. Each module is represented by a box with the name of the module in it and a flow chart showing the logical flow of the modules with the current module boxed in red. The first three horizontally sequenced boxes are green. The first box is "Introduction to ITS Transit Standards, Module 1", which is outlined in red. Below that, connected by a line, is a box with the text "Transit Management, Part 1 of 2." To the right of this box, is "Transit Management, Part 2 of 2". Below that "Transit Management, Part 1 of 2", connected by a line, is a box with the text, "TCIP, Part 1 of 2." To the right of this box, is "TCIP, Part 2 of 2." From here, the lines branch out into four text boxes that are horizontally sequenced. The first two: "Traveler Information, Part 1 of 2" and "Arterial Management & Transit Signal Priority, Part 1 of 2" are green; the last two are "Electronic Fare Payment Systems," and "Transit and the Connected Vehicle Environment/Emerging Technologies, Applications, and Future Platforms." Below "Traveler Information, Part 1 of 2," is the text box "Traveler Information, Part 2 of 2" coded in blue. Below "Arterial Management & Transit Signal Priority, Part 1 of 2", is the text box "Arterial Management & Transit Signal Priority, Part 2 of 2," coded in blue. )

Slide 10:

Curriculum Path (Project Engineer)

Curriculum Path for Project Engineer. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: Curriculum Path for Project Engineer A graphical illustration indicating the sequence of training modules and where this module fits in. Each module is represented by a box with the name of the module in it and a flow chart showing the logical flow of the modules with the current module boxed in red. The first three horizontally sequenced boxes are green. The first box is "Introduction to ITS Transit Standards, Module 1", which is outlined in red. Below that, connected by a line, is a box with the text "Transit Management, Part 1 of 2." To the right of this box, is "Transit Management, Part 2 of 2". Below that "Transit Management, Part 1 of 2", connected by a line, is a box with the text, "TCIP, Part 1 of 2." To the right of this box, is "TCIP, Part 2 of 2." From here, the lines branch out into four text boxes that are horizontally sequenced. The first two: "Traveler Information, Part 1 of 2" and "Arterial Management & Transit Signal Priority, Part 1 of 2" are green; the last two are "Electronic Fare Payment Systems," and "Transit and the Connected Vehicle Environment/Emerging Technologies, Applications, and Future Platforms." Below "Traveler Information, Part 1 of 2," is the text box "Traveler Information, Part 2 of 2" coded in green. Below "Arterial Management & Transit Signal Priority, Part 1 of 2", is the text box "Arterial Management & Transit Signal Priority, Part 2 of 2," coded in green.)

Slide 11:

Learning Objectives

  1. Define ITS transit standards and examine the benefits and costs of using ITS transit standards
  2. Introduce the use of the Systems Engineering Process (SEP) and articulate benefits of SEP in ITS transit projects
  3. Define high level technical and institutional challenges
  4. Identify the role of ITS Standards in Transit ITS applications
  5. Describe Roadmap for Transit Standards Modules

Slide 12:

Learning Objective #1: Define ITS Transit Standards and Examine the Benefits and Costs of Using ITS Transit Standards

Slide 13:

Learning Objective #1

What are ITS Transit Standards?

Slide 14:

Learning Objective #1

Standards Development Process

Standards Development Organizations (SDO)

A graphic showing how standards are developed by Standards Development Organizations (SDOs). Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: A graphic showing how standards are developed by Standards Development Organizations (SDOs). Six arrows making a complete circle signifying the following: Initiating the Project, Mobilizing the Working Group, Drafting the Standard, Balloting the Standard, Gaining Final Approval, Maintaining the Standard.)

Slide 15:

Learning Objective #1

Benefits of Using Standards

Slide 16:

Learning Objective #1

Benefits - Interoperability

A graphic showing how an audio system works to illustrate the property of interoperability. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: A graphic showing how an audio system works to illustrate the property of interoperability. The graphic shows how audio standards connect an Amplifier, a Receiver, and an MP3 Player above the standards icon and Record Turntable, CD Player and Future Device below the standards icon. )

Slide 17:

Learning Objective #1

Interoperability in Transit

A graphic showing the interfaces to transit agency systems described as part of the Real-time System Management Information Program (RTSMIP). Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: A graphic showing the interfaces to transit agency systems described as part of the Real-time System Management Information Program (RTSMIP). The diagram is taken from the Data Exchange Format Specification (DXFS) document. The image shows a series of interconnected boxes. The key at the bottom shows a black line and arrow labeled "Interfaces that are the subject of the DXFS." A dotted blue line and arrow is labeled "Additional interfaces relevant to an overall RTSMIP." The first box on the left reads "Private Data Collection Organization Systems" which is connected by a blue dotted arrow to "Transportation Agency Systems" and by another blue dotted arrow to "Transit Agency Systems." "Transportaion Agency Systems" is then connected via a bi-directional black arrow to "Transit Agency Systems." Both of those boxes are then connected by black arrows to "Public Traveler Information Provider Systems" and "Private Third Party Provider Systems." "Public Traveler Information Provider Systems" is also connected via a black arrow to "Private Third Party Provider Systems.")

Slide 18:

Learning Objective #1

Supports Compliance to FTA Policy on ITS Architecture and Standards

Slide 19:

Learning Objective #1

Facilitates Systems Integration

Slide 20:

Learning Objective #1

Reduces Costs for Integration and O&M

Slide 21:

Learning Objective #1

Simplifies Procurement

Slide 22:

Learning Objective #1

Costs Associated with Standards Use

Slide 23:

Activity. A placeholder graphic with an image of hand over a computer keyboard to show that an activity is taking place.

Slide 24:

Learning Objective #1

What are some benefits of using ITS Standards?

Answer Choices

  1. Facilitates regional interoperability
  2. Supports compliance to FTA Policy on ITS Architecture and Standards
  3. Facilitates systems integration
  4. All of the above

Slide 25:

Learning Objective #1

Review of Answers

A small graphical red and yellow X representing incorrect.a) Facilitates regional interoperability
Incorrect. Including information sharing across agencies.

A small graphical red and yellow X representing incorrect.b) Supports compliance to FTA Policy on ITS Architecture and Standards
Incorrect. Identifying standards used is one part of policy requirement for systems engineering analysis.

A small graphical red and yellow X representing incorrect.c) Facilitates systems integration
Incorrect. Data created by one part of the agency can be input and used directly by another part of the agency.

A small graphical green and yellow check mark representing correct.d) All of the above
Correct! Each of the above are key benefits of using standards.

Slide 26:

Summary of Learning Objective #1

Define ITS Transit Standards and Examine the Benefits and Costs of Using ITS Transit Standards

Slide 27:

Learning Objective #2: Introduce the Use of the Systems Engineering Process (SEP) and Articulate Benefits of SEP in ITS Transit Projects

Slide 28:

Learning Objective #2

SEP and its Benefits

Slide 29:

Learning Objective #2

What is Systems Engineering?

Slide 30:

Learning Objective #2

What is the "Vee" Model?

A graphic of the Vee Diagram, which shows the life cycle of an ITS system. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: A graphic of the Vee Diagram, which shows the life cycle of an ITS system. The Vee Diagram shows the steps in the Systems Engineering Process. These steps are: Regional ITS Architecture, Concept Exploration, Systems Engineering Management Plan Framework, Concept of Operations, System Requirements, Subsystem Requirements/ Project Architecture, Component Level (Detailed Design), Software Coding/ Hardware Fabrication, Unit Testing, Subsystem Integration & Testing, System Integration & Verification, System Validation, Operation & Maintenance, Changes & Upgrades, Retirement/ Replacement. The diagram also shows the connection between the left and right sides of the Vee. The left side of the Vee shows an arrow pointing down along the Vee labeled Decomposition and Definition. The bottom of the Vee show an arrow pointing left to right labeled Life Cycle Time Line. On the symmetrical opposite side going up the Vee is another arrow labeled Integration and Recomposition. In between each step is a Decision Milestone. Connecting the left side of the Vee to the right side of the Vee are various bidirectional arrows: Concept of Operations is connected via System Validation Strategy/Plan to System Validation. System Requirements is connected via System Verification Plan (System Acceptance) to System Integration & Verification. Subsystem Requirements Project Arch is connected via Subsystem Verification Plan (Verify Subsystems) to Subsystem Integration & Verification. Finally, Component Level Design is connected via Unit Testing Plan to Unit Testing.)

Slide 31:

Learning Objective #2

Connecting Left and Right Sides

Slide 32:

Learning Objective #2

Detailed "Vee" Diagram with Relationship to Project Life Cycle

Detailed Vee Diagram with Relationship to Project Life Cycle. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This image shows the same Vee Diagram from slide 30, with an additional top graphic that runs horizontal across the Vee diagram, showing the traditional project development cycle with the following steps, in order: Transportation Planning, Programming/Budgeting, Project Initiation, Preliminary Engineering, Plans Specs & Estimates, Implementation, Project Closeout, Operations & Maintenance, Changes & Upgrades, and Retirement/ Replacement. The bottom portion of the diagram is the same Vee along with lines showing the connections between the two processes. Project Initiation connects with Systems Engineering Management Plan Framework, Preliminary Engineering covers from the previous point to the decision milestone after System Requirements, Plans Specs & Estimates covers from the previous point to the decision milestone after Component Level Design, and Implementation covers from the previous point to the decision milestone after System Validation.)

Slide 33:

Learning Objective #2

SEP Decision Points

Slide 34:

Learning Objective #2

Benefits of SEP

Slide 35:

Learning Objective #2

Regional ITS Architecture

There are three graphics on the page showing examples of types of Regions used to create regional ITS architectures. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: For illustration purposes only: There are three graphics on the page showing examples of types of "Regions" used to create regional ITS architectures. The left diagram is of Mesilla Valley Metropolitan Planning Organization, the middle diagram is of Florida DOT District 7, and the right diagram is of the state of West Virginia.)

1 FTA Policy on Architecture and Standards, 2001

Slide 36:

Learning Objective #2

National ITS Architecture

Graphic of the Sausage Diagram diagram of the National ITS Architecture. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: Graphic of the "Sausage Diagram" diagram of the National ITS Architecture, which shows a high level interconnect diagram of the 22 subsystems of the National ITS Architecture. The diagram is divided into four main sections, with a series of connecting communications formats. In the upper left corner, the Travelers section (yellow background) has two sub-boxes within it: Remote Traveler Support (top, connected by a line to Fixed Point – Fixed Point Communications) and Personal Information Access (bottom, connected by a line to Wide Area Wireless (Mobile) Communications underneath and Fixed Point – Fixed Point Communications underneath and to the right). At the top right, the larger Centers section (green background) has two rows of sub-boxes within it. Top row, left to right: Traffic Management, Emergency Management, Payment Administration, Commercial Vehicle Administration, and Maintenance & Construction Management. Bottom row, left to right: Information Service Provider, Emissions Management, Transit Management, Fleet and Freight Management, and Archived Data Management. Every one of these sub-boxes under Centers is connected by a line to the Fixed Point – Fixed Point Communications box underneath the Centers section and to the right of the Wide Area Wireless (Mobile) Communications box (under Travelers section). To the lower left there is a Vehicles section (blue background) with a set of diagonally ascending sub-boxes within it (start lower left to the upper right of the box): Maintenance & Construction Vehicle, Transit Vehicle, Commercial Vehicle, Emergency Vehicle, and Vehicle. Each of these sub-boxes is connected by a line to the Wide Area Wireless (Mobile) Communications box above it, and to the vertically-running Vehicle-Vehicle Communications box to the left of the Vehicles section. To the lower right, there is a Field section (orange background) with a set of diagonally descending sub-boxes within it (from upper left to lower right): Roadway, Security Monitoring, Roadway Payment, Parking Management, and Commercial Vehicle Check. Each sub-box is connected by a line to the Fixed Point – Fixed Point Communications box above it, and to the vertically-running Field – Vehicle Communications box to the left (in between the Vehicles and Field sections). See Author Notes below for more information.)

View at http://www.iteris.com/itsarch/index.htm

Slide 37:

Learning Objective #2

How Standards Fit into SEP

Graphic shows the left side of the Vee diagram with a shaded oval showing the two steps in the process where standards are defined and tailored. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: Graphic shows the left side of the Vee diagram as described in Slide 30 with a shaded oval showing the two steps in the process where standards are defined and tailored. The two areas that are highlighted include High-Level Design Subsystem Requirements and Detailed Design.)

Slide 38:

Activity. A placeholder graphic with an image of hand over a computer keyboard to show that an activity is taking place.

Slide 39:

Learning Objective #2

What is the relationship between the steps on the left of the Vee and the right?

Answer Choices

  1. No relationship between left and right
  2. System definition on left used to verify system on right
  3. Items on the left are performed after items on right

Slide 40:

Learning Objective #2

Review of Answers

A small graphical red and yellow X representing incorrect.a) No relationship between left and right
Incorrect. There is a relationship between items on the left and items on the right.

A small graphical green and yellow check mark representing correct.b) System definition on left used to verify system on right
Correct! Definition generated on the left is ultimately used to verify the system on the right. See Slide 88.

A small graphical red and yellow X representing incorrect.c) Items on left performed after items on right
Incorrect. Items on the left are performed first and used to verify items on the right.

Slide 41:

Learning Objective #2

ITS Standards are typically first used in what step in the SE Process?

Answer Choices

  1. Concept of Operations
  2. Requirements
  3. Design - High Level and Detailed
  4. HW and SW development

Slide 42:

Learning Objective #2

Review of Answers

A small graphical red and yellow X representing incorrect.a) Concept of Operations
Incorrect. Defines user needs.

A small graphical red and yellow X representing incorrect.b) System Requirements
Incorrect. Defines functional, performance, and other requirements (may be able to pull requirements from standards).

A small graphical green and yellow check mark representing correct.c) Design- High Level and Detailed
Correct! Standards are identified in High Level Design and specified in Detailed Design.

A small graphical red and yellow X representing incorrect.d) HW and SW development
Incorrect. Implemented based on the standards defined.

Slide 43:

Summary of Learning Objective #2

Introduce the Use of the Systems Engineering Process (SEP) and Articulate Benefits of SEP in ITS Transit Projects

Slide 44:

Learning Objective #3: Define High Level Technical and Institutional Challenges

Slide 45:

Learning Objective #3

Technical Challenges

Slide 46:

Learning Objective #3

Technical Challenges - Industry Support

Slide 47:

Learning Objective #3

Technical Challenges - Gaps

Slide 48:

Learning Objective #3

Technical Challenges - Paradigm Shifts

Slide 49:

Learning Objective #3

Institutional Challenges

Slide 50:

Learning Objective #3

Institutional Challenges - Resistance to Change

Slide 51:

Learning Objective #3

Institutional Challenges - Gaps in Skills/Training

Slide 52:

Activity. A placeholder graphic with an image of hand over a computer keyboard to show that an activity is taking place.

Slide 53:

Learning Objective #3

Agencies have found which of the following to be a technical challenge of using ITS Standards?

Answer Choices

  1. Inconsistent industry support
  2. Needed standards are not mature
  3. Using standards is a paradigm shift for agency
  4. All of the above

Slide 54:

Learning Objective #3

Review of Answers

A small graphical red and yellow X representing incorrect.a) Inconsistent industry support
Incorrect. Specifying standards may incur pushback from vendors who do not support them.

A small graphical red and yellow X representing incorrect.b) Needed standards are not mature
Incorrect. May have some gaps in coverage.

A small graphical red and yellow X representing incorrect.c) Using standards is a paradigm shift for agency
Incorrect. Technical skills are needed to properly specify standards in procurements.

A small graphical green and yellow check mark representing correct.d) All of the above
Correct! Each of the above are potential technical challenges to using standards.

Slide 55:

Summary of Learning Objective #3

Define High Level Technical and Institutional Challenges

Slide 56:

Learning Objective #4: Identify the Role of ITS Standards in Transit ITS Applications

Slide 57:

Learning Objective #4

What are Specific ITS Applications for which Standards can be Applied

Slide 58:

Learning Objective #4

How do the Standards Apply to the Applications?

Slide 59:

Learning Objective #4

How do the Standards Apply to the Applications? (cont.)

Slide 60:

Learning Objective #4

Procurement Link to Standards

Slide 61:

Learning Objective #4

Addressing Changing Technologies

Slide 62:

Learning Objective #4

Interfacing with Legacy Systems

Slide 63:

Learning Objective #4

What Transit Agency Staff will Need to Know to Implement Standards

Slide 64:

Summary of Learning Objective #4

Slide 65:

Learning Objective #5: Describe Roadmap for Transit Standards Modules

Slide 66:

Learning Objective #5

Roadmap for Transit Decision-makers

Curriculum Path for Decision Maker. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: Curriculum Path for Decision Maker: A graphical illustration indicating the sequence of training modules and where this module fits in. Each module is represented by a box with the name of the module in it and a flow chart showing the logical flow of the modules. The first three boxes are green and aligned horizontally, green signifying "Recommended Pre-requisites." The first box is "Introduction to ITS Transit Standards, Module 1." Below that, connected by a line, is a box with the text "Transit Management, Part 1 of 2." Below that, connected by a line, is a box with the text, "TCIP, Part 1 of 2." From here, the lines branch out into three text boxes that are horizontally sequenced and are in blue, signifying "Optional Modules." These three boxes are: "Traveler Information, Part 1 of 2", "Electronic Fare Payment Systems," and "Transit and the Connected Vehicle Environment/Emerging Technologies, Applications, and Future Platforms.")

Slide 67:

Learning Objective #5

Roadmap for Transit Project Managers

Curriculum Path for Project Manager. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: Curriculum Path for Project Manager: A graphical illustration indicating the sequence of training modules and where this module fits in. Each module is represented by a box with the name of the module in it and a flow chart showing the logical flow of the modules. The first three horizontally sequenced boxes are green. The first box is "Introduction to ITS Transit Standards, Module 1." Below that, connected by a line, is a box with the text "Transit Management, Part 1 of 2." To the right of this box, is "Transit Management, Part 2 of 2". Below that "Transit Management, Part 1 of 2", connected by a line, is a box with the text, "TCIP, Part 1 of 2." To the right of this box, is "TCIP, Part 2 of 2." From here, the lines branch out into four text boxes that are horizontally sequenced. The first two: "Traveler Information, Part 1 of 2" and "Arterial Management & Transit Signal Priority, Part 1 of 2" are green; the last two are "Electronic Fare Payment Systems," and "Transit and the Connected Vehicle Environment/Emerging Technologies, Applications, and Future Platforms." Below "Traveler Information, Part 1 of 2," is the text box "Traveler Information, Part 2 of 2" coded in blue. Below "Arterial Management & Transit Signal Priority, Part 1 of 2", is the text box "Arterial Management & Transit Signal Priority, Part 2 of 2," coded in blue.)

Slide 68:

Learning Objective #5

Roadmap for Project Engineering Staff

Curriculum Path for Project Engineer. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: Curriculum Path for Project Engineer: A graphical illustration indicating the sequence of training modules and where this module fits in. Each module is represented by a box with the name of the module in it and a flow chart showing the logical flow of the modules. The first three horizontally sequenced boxes are green. The first box is "Introduction to ITS Transit Standards, Module 1." Below that, connected by a line, is a box with the text "Transit Management, Part 1 of 2." To the right of this box, is "Transit Management, Part 2 of 2". Below that "Transit Management, Part 1 of 2", connected by a line, is a box with the text, "TCIP, Part 1 of 2." To the right of this box, is "TCIP, Part 2 of 2." From here, the lines branch out into four text boxes that are horizontally sequenced. The first two: "Traveler Information, Part 1 of 2" and "Arterial Management & Transit Signal Priority, Part 1 of 2" are green; the last two are "Electronic Fare Payment Systems," and "Transit and the Connected Vehicle Environment/Emerging Technologies, Applications, and Future Platforms." Below "Traveler Information, Part 1 of 2," is the text box "Traveler Information, Part 2 of 2" coded in green. Below "Arterial Management & Transit Signal Priority, Part 1 of 2", is the text box "Arterial Management & Transit Signal Priority, Part 2 of 2," coded in green.)

Slide 69:

Summary of Learning Objective #5

Describe Roadmap for Transit Standards Modules

Slide 70:

What We Have Learned

  1. ITS Standards define how ITS systems, products, and components can interconnect, exchange information , and interact to deliver services within a transportation network.
  2. TS Standards can facilitate Regional interoperability.
  3. Standards can be used as part of the Systems Engineering Process.
  4. There are challenges to using ITS Transit standards that are both:
    1. Technical and
    2. Institutional
  5. ITS Transit standards can be used to support a wide array of transit applications , including AVL, CAD, traveler information, TSP, and Electronic Fare Payment.

Slide 71:

Resources

Slide 72:

Next Course Module

Module 2: Transit Management Standards,

Part 1 of 2

Slide 73:

Thank you for completing this module.