Module 13: An Introduction to Integrated Corridor Management (ICM)
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Module 13: An Introduction to Integrated Corridor Management (ICM)
Table of Contents
1. Module Description
Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) focuses on managing a transportation corridor by creating a framework for interaction and coordination among the various agencies that operate facilities along that corridor, including transit agencies and operators. This is in contrast to traditional management, in which individual agencies manage their respective networks (e.g., a highway agency is concerned only with performance on the highway system). With ICM, agencies work together to optimize travel within the corridor by providing travelers with actionable information and implementing innovative operational practices and strategies, enabled by Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) technologies. For example, if a highway is experiencing higher than normal traffic (e.g., congestion caused by an accident), a diversion strategy can be crafted to redirect travelers to frontage roads or arterials and/or to park-and-ride lots to take transit.
To plan and implement these strategies, technology often plays a strong role. These technologies include parking management systems, Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) and Automatic Passenger Counter (APC) technologies on transit, traffic-sensing technology on roads, and methods of information dissemination (e.g., variable message signs, 511, mobile alerts), both for travelers and transportation managers. It is anticipated that having access to and using this information will support better situational awareness and response than before ICM.
Transit agencies can play an important role in the process of improving mobility and reduce congestion on a busy corridor. This module provides an introduction to ICM and provides information on pertinent transit and other standards deployed using ICM case studies. There are four basic concepts within ICM that will be briefly described in this module: (1) Corridor modes of operation; (2) Strategic areas for ICM; (3) Conceptual levels within the corridor; and (4) ICM environment. Further, there are two sites that have fully-deployed ICM systems (Dallas and San Diego) and several others that are being deployed. The characteristics of three ICM systems (Dallas, San Diego and Virginia/DC) will be described in this module.
Finally, ITS standards have the ability to facilitate integration of ICM technologies and systems. Standards for facilities, centers and operators within a corridor support, corridor management strategy, interoperability of systems, control and sharing of technologies and data, and interchangeability of technologies. Several specific standards are considered as a part of ICM strategies, and these will be introduced in this module.
The U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) selected eight "Pioneer Sites" to act as critical partners in the development, deployment and evaluation of Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) strategies designed to help manage congestion in some of our nation's busiest urban corridors. Figure 1 shows the cities that were ICM Pioneer Sites. Dallas and San Diego were then selected as demonstration sites. This module includes more information about ICM in these two sites.
(Extended Text Description: Figure 1. USDOT ICM Pioneer Sites: This is a map of the United States that shows the location of the eight ICM Pioneer Sites. Each state in which there is a Pioneer Site is colored purple: Maryland - Montgomery County was a Pioneer Site; Minnesota – Minneapolis was a Pioneer Site; Texas – Dallas, San Antonio and Houston were Pioneer Sites; California – San Diego was a Pioneer Site and Washington – Seattle was a Pioneer Site.)
Figure 1. US DOT ICM Pioneer Sites1
(Extended Text Description: Figure 2. I-5 Operational Scenario (left is before, right is after): Two maps are displayed in this figure. To the left is a map of the Greater Seattle area. The top of the map is around Everett and the bottom of the map is around Sea Tac. To the right is an identical map, but with a red jagged oval over a small area on the map where there is a truck fire on Northbound I-5.)
Figure 2. I-5 Operational Scenario (left is before, right is after)
Figure 2 shows the location of a sample ICM operational scenario as described in this module.1
1 Dallas, TX, and San Diego, CA were selected to demonstrate ICM concepts that may have applicability to a broad range of corridors around the country.
(Extended Text Description: Figure 3. Conceptual Diagram of the San Diego ICM System: This figure has a blue box entitled ICMS in yellow lettering at the top of the slide, with three blue boxes below it. Each of these boxes is entitled in yellow lettering, from left to right, is System Management Subsystem, Life-Cycle Support Subsystem and Data Stores Subsystem. Below these three boxes, but connected to the blue box at the top of the slide are two boxes, both connected by lines from the blue box with arrows pointing to each of the two boxes. The box on the left is red and entitled DSS Subsystem in yellow lettering. The box on the right is green and entitled IMTMS Subsystem in black lettering. The red box is considered an ICMS candidate system to be developed or enhanced. The blue box is the core functionality required under the ICMS delivery. The green box is a subsystem which is currently part of the Regional Intermodal Transportation Management System. Under the red box entitled DSS Subsystem in yellow lettering are three red boxes below it. Each of these boxes is entitled in yellow lettering, from left to right, is Response Plan Subsystem, Conferencing Subsystem and Event Management Subsystem. Below these three boxes are two more red boxes entitled Modeling Subsystem and Corridor Management Subsystem in yellow lettering. Under the green box entitled IMTMS Subsystem in black lettering are five green boxes below it. Each of these boxes is entitled in black lettering, from left to right, is ATMS 2005 Subsystem, RMIS Subsystem, MLCS Subsystem, LCS Subsystem, and RTMS Subsystem. Below these five boxes are four more green boxes entitled RAMS Subsystem, REMS Subsystem, and CPS Subsystem, in black lettering and PMS Subsystem in yellow lettering. Below these four boxes are three more green boxes entitled CMS Subsystem and CCTV Subsystem in black lettering and HAR Subsystem in yellow lettering. Below these three boxes are two more green boxes entitled Data Processing Subsystem and Information Display Subsystem in black lettering. At the bottom left of the slide are two boxes – one is green with black lettering that says RAMS and the other box is red with yellow lettering that says Modeling. The black lettering means existing or partially existing capability, and the yellow lettering means future capability.)
Figure 3. Conceptual Diagram of the San Diego ICM System
Figure 3 is a functional diagram that shows what the I-15 ICM System (ICMS) will do. Those areas of the diagram shaded in GREEN are the subsystems which are currently part of the Regional Intermodal Transportation Management System (i.e., traffic detection systems CCTVs, Ramp Metering System (RES), RAMS, Regional Transit Management System etc.) that are currently being used in the region, although a limited number are still stand-alone. Those shaded RED are considered ICMS candidate systems to be developed or enhanced. Those shaded in BLUE are the core functionality required under the ICMS delivery, and draw upon all underlying subsystems shaded RED or GREEN.
Of note here are the build-out components of a Decision Support subsystem (DSS), and the Modeling subsystem. These subsystems assist the decision making process that will be required for a multi-modal, inter-jurisdictional, and inter-disciplinary coordination, and ICM effort.
Figure 4 shows the Dallas ICM system, which is comprised of three major subsystems. One of the main components of the ICM System is SmartNET/SmartFusion, which gathers data from a variety of sources and delivers it to multiple destinations. Information is gathered from transportation systems, emergency management systems, dispatch systems for law enforcement, and other types of systems. The ICM System then makes this information available via a web server to traditional users such as Traffic Operations Centers, the Media, and Agency and public websites.
Figure 5 shows one of the unique aspects of Dallas' Traveler Information features for the 511, which is the ability to display real time next bus times graphically with maps.
(Extended Text Description: Figure 4. High-Level ICMS Conceptual Diagram. High-Level ICMS Conceptual Diagram (Source: Dallas Area Rapid Transit, March 22, 2013). This diagram is composed of three major areas. The top left area of the graphic is entitled DSS 1.1 and is composed of three connected ovals entitled Expert Rules 1.1.1, Evaluation 1.1.2 and Prediction 1.1.3. The right area of the graphic is entitled Smart Fusion 1.2 and is composed of five connected ovals entitled Plan Decision 1.2.1, Data Dissemination 1.2.2, Data Fusion 1.2.3, Data Collection 1.2.4 and Data Store 1.2.5. The lower left slide of the graphic is entitled SmartNET 1.3 and is composed of two connected ovals entitled Plan Decision Dialogue 1.3.1 and SmartNET GUI. The connections in the graphic can be described as follows:
There are four green boxes above the diagram entitled from left to right: 511 Mobile, Social Media, My511 and Interactive Trip Planning Systems (which is a box with a dashed line around it). Then there are nine boxes to right of the diagram. From top to bottom: the first three boxes are green XML Data Feed (Events, Link Data), DFW 511 Public Web and DFW 511 IVR. The next box is half green and half purple and is entitled C2C. The remaining five boxes are purple and have the following titles: TxDOT XML, Parking Info, Navteq Data, Weather Info and DART AVL and APC Data. Below the diagram are four boxes. From right to left, the boxes are one purple box entitled DART GTFS, one purple box entitled DART Events, one blue box entitled Administrative User, and one green box entitled Internet E-mail. To the left of the diagram are three blue boxes. From bottom to top, they are entitled Agency User, ICM Coordinator (Agency User) and Model Operator. All of these boxes are connected to ovals in the diagram as follows:
Figure 4. High-Level ICMS Conceptual Diagram (Source: Dallas Area Rapid Transit, March 22, 2013)
(Extended Text Description: Figure 5. Real Time Transit Data Used for ICM and 511DFW. This figure is a collage of three slides in the presentation, all entitled Dallas – Demonstration Site, subtitled Real Time Transit Data Used for ICM and 511DFW. The three graphics are described as follows. The first graphic has a map of Dallas in the background and in the foreground, there is a window that has the following words DART Light Rail GREEN LINE on the first line, and then shows Transit Departure Times for Market Center Station Northbound of 11:12pm, 11:42pm and 01:12am, for Market Center Station Southbound of 10:59pm, 11:29pm and 0:01am. Above the window are the words Train Times, Location, and Capacity. At the top of the graphic are the following icons: Traffic Incidents, Traffic Construction, Transit Incidents, Transit Construction, Special Events, Traffic Speeds, HOV Speeds, Weather Alerts, Weather Forecast, Radar Overlay, Rail Bus Stops, Message Signs, Traffic Cameras and Parking Info. The second graphic has a map of Dallas in the background and in the foreground, there is a window that shows the parking lot capacity at Parker Station Lot A in a pie chart that shows 73.8% or 611 spaces occupied and 26.2% or 217 spaces available. At the top of the graphic are the following icons: Traffic Incidents, Traffic Construction, Transit Incidents, Transit Construction, Special Events, Traffic Speeds, HOV Speeds, Weather Alerts, Weather Forecast, Radar Overlay, Rail Bus Stops, Message Signs, Traffic Cameras and Parking Info. The third graphic has a map of Dallas in the background and in the foreground, there is a window that shows Bus Times and Location for Route 26 Frazier Courts as follows: at Cedar Station Northbound at 8:03pm and Cedar Station Southbound at 8:38pm. At the bottom of this window, it says Last Updated 8/27/2014 7:53pm. At the top of the graphic are the following icons: Traffic Incidents, Traffic Construction, Transit Incidents, Transit Construction, Special Events, Traffic Speeds, HOV Speeds, Weather Alerts, Weather Forecast, Radar Overlay, Rail Bus Stops, Message Signs, Traffic Cameras and Parking Info.)
Figure 5. Real Time Transit Data Used for ICM and 511DFW
(Extended Text Description: Figure 6. Example of ITS Integration Using NTCIP. This figure shows center to center (C2C) communications. The center of the diagram is an oval that is entitled C2C Message Sets. Under the words C2C Message Sets are following: Traffic Management, Incident Management, Transit Management, Traveler Information, Intermodal Network Management (Global) and Other. Emanating from this oval are numerous boxes that represent various types of systems. Starting from the far left of the diagram is a box entitled Emergency Management Systems – it is connected to the C2C oval by a line. The other boxes connected to the C2C oval counterclockwise from the Emergency Management Systems box are called Freeway System, Railroad System, Streets System A, Parking System, Streets System B, Transit System B, Transit System A, and Traveler Info Clearinghouse. There are six boxes connected to the Traveler Information Clearinghouse, with the following titles: Roadside Services, Weather, Airports, Seaports, Car Rental and Events. These six boxes are to the left of the Traveler Information Clearinghouse box. There is one box to the right of and connected to the Traveler Information Clearinghouse box entitled Traveler Service Providers.)
Figure 6. Example of ITS Integration Using NTCIP illustrates how various transportation management systems and devices can be integrated using NTCIP.
(Extended Text Description: Figure 7. I-80 Systems Integration. This figure has a graphic that shows elements of their Virtual Private Network. In the middle of the diagram, it says Virtual Private Network. Emanating from the middle of the diagram are the following elements (starting at a noon position moving clockwise): Smart Corridor building, City of Pinole, WESTCAT, Contra Costa County, City of Hercules, City of San Pablo, City of Richmond, City of El Cerrito, City of Albany, City of Emeryville, City of Berkeley, AC Transit, and Oakland TMC. Each of these elements are connected to the center of the diagram with lines that represent High Speed Internet Connections. The Smart Corridor building is connected to Caltrans District 4 with a line representing OPT-E-MAN link. The City of Pinole is connected to Pinole Police Dep with a line representing a Fiber Optic link. The City of San Pedro is connected to San Pedro Police Dep with a line representing a Fiber Optic link. The City of Richmond is connected to Richmond Police Dep with a line representing a Fiber Optic link. The City of El Cerrito is connected to El Cerrito Police Dep with a line representing a Fiber Optic link.)
Figure 7. I-80 Systems Integration shows a schematic of the I-80 system integration among various cities, AC Transit, emergency management and Caltrans. System operations are automated, traffic management is coordinated along the corridor and there is information sharing among agencies.
4. Reference to Other Standards
This section contains additional information about the standards described in this module.
4.1. National Transportation Communications for ITS Protocol (NTCIP)
4.2. NTCIP 1211 v02 - Object Definitions for Signal Control and Prioritization (SCP)
4.3. Advanced Transportation Controller (ATC)
4.4. ATC Cabinet
4.5. NTCIP Center-to-Center (C2C)
5. Case Studies
5.1. San Diego
The San Diego ICM Corridor covers a 21-mile segment of I-15 and runs from SR-78 in the north to SR-163 interchange in the south. It serves commuter, goods, and services movement from northern San Diego to the downtown area. Weekday traffic volumes range from 170,000 to 290,000 vehicles on general purpose lanes. Managed Lanes and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) operate in the Managed Lanes. Dynamic variable pricing in the managed Lanes will help manage traffic flow.
San Diego's ICMS aims to proactively and collaboratively manage the I-15 corridor to maximize transportation system performance and enable travelers the opportunity to make convenient shifts among modes and routes.
Improved mobility for people, goods, and services will be achieved by improving current levels of system integration and through continued collaboration among the corridor's institutional partners and their native functional environments or systems. With ICM, actions taken by individual agencies or networks will be made based on the condition of and the impact on the entire corridor.
All corridor operations will be coordinated through the ICMS where corridor networks and agencies will share data and information and make changes for the benefit of the corridor's operations. For example, operations personnel will adjust traffic signals and ramp meters to direct travelers to High-Occupancy Toll (HOT) lanes, bus rapid transit and other operations tools as needed. The DSS will forecast corridor performance problems and recommend response plans allowing proactive courses of action. Who's involved? The I-15 ICM Demonstration is a collaborative effort led by the San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG) in collaboration with the U.S. DOT, California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), the Metropolitan Transit System, the North County Transit District, and the cities of San Diego, Poway, and Escondido.
The ICM project leverages the region's extensive Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) modal networks to measure and manage performance from a corridor perspective. Existing assets include the Intermodal Transportation Management System (IMTMS), Regional Arterial Management System (RAMS), Advanced Freeway Traffic Management System (ATMS), Regional Transit Management System (RTMS), 511 advanced traveler information system, and FasTrak®. ICM enables multiple systems to "talk" to each other to coordinate operations and maximize efficiency regardless of who owns or operates the individual system; monitors changing conditions and congestion based on real-time information; generates automated response plans; and reevaluates and generates new response plans as traffic conditions change. Operations in the corridor are managed using a Decision Support System (DSS), the first of its kind developed in the nation, to assist operators with prediction and evaluation of complex traffic interactions and coordinate selection of appropriate multi-network response strategies to manage congestion during commute times or major incidents. Similar to earthquake or tsunami prediction systems, the DSS uses predictive algorithms and modeling tools to forecast corridor performance problems and recommend response plans. Predictions and recommendations are generated in 15-, 30-, and 60-minute horizons based on real-time and historical performance data. As a result, local transportation managers are able to carry out a coordinated response.
The standards in use or planned for use in developing ICMS subsystem interfaces are as follows:
The deployed I-15 ICM system has demonstrated its ability to:
The system has also demonstrated the feasibility of using a microscopic traffic simulation model in a real-time operational environment to forecast corridor operations under alternative scenarios. Simulation evaluations have further consistently shown operational benefits exceeding deployment costs.
The Dallas ICM Corridor covers a 28-mile segment of US-75 and is the primary connector between Dallas and northern suburbs. It serves commuter, commercial, and regional trips. Weekday mainline traffic volumes reach 250,000 vehicles with 30,000 on frontage roads. There are 167 miles of arterial roadways. And there are High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes, Light Rail Transit (LRT), Bus Service, and Park-and-Ride lots.
The Corridor for the Dallas Pioneer Project is the US-75 Corridor (aka the North Central Expressway Corridor). This Corridor is a major north-south radial Corridor connecting downtown Dallas with many of the suburbs and cities north of Dallas. The primary Corridor consists of a freeway, continuous frontage roads, light-rail line, transit bus service, park-and-ride lots, major regional arterial streets, toll roads, bike trails, and intelligent transportation systems. A concurrent-flow, high-occupancy vehicle lane in the Corridor, opened in December 2007, added significant expansion of the intelligent transportation systems for the freeway and arterials street systems are programmed. The US-75 Corridor has been defined at two levels. The immediate Corridor consists of the primary freeway Corridor and light-rail line Corridor and all arterial streets within approximately two miles of the freeway, as described above. In addition, a full "travel shed" influence area has been defined that includes additional alternate modes and routes that may be affected by a major incident or event. The travel shed area is generally bound by the downtown to the south, the Dallas North Tollway to the west, SH 121 to the north, and a combination of arterials streets and the DART Blue Line to the east. This US-75 Corridor contains Dallas' first major freeway completed around 1950. This section of freeway was totally reconstructed with cantilevered frontage roads over the depressed freeway section and re-opened in 1999 with a minimum of eight general purpose lanes. The freeway main lanes carry over 250,000 vehicles a day, with another 20,000-30,000 on the frontage roads. The Corridor also contains the first light-rail line constructed in Dallas, part of the 20-mile DART starter system, opened in 1996. The Red Line now expands into cities of Richardson and Plano and passes next to the cities of Highland Park and University Park. This facility operates partially at-grade and partially grade separated through deep-bored tunnels under US-75. There is also another rail line, the Blue Line, which operates in the US-75 Corridor near downtown Dallas and extends along the eastern edge of the Corridor boundary. In the downtown, there is also a connection from these lines to the regional commuter rail line that extends to downtown Fort Worth. The Corridor serves commuting trips into downtown Dallas via the freeway, bus routes, light-rail line, and arterial streets. There are also a significant number of reverse commuters traveling to commercial and retail developments in the northern cities and neighborhoods. The Corridor also serves significant regional traffic during off-peak periods. The freeway is a continuation of Interstate 45; and thus, it also serves interstate traffic into Oklahoma. The Corridor is also a major evacuation route and experienced significant volumes during the Hurricane Rita evacuation in 2005. There are three major freeway interchanges in the Corridor. US-75 has an interchange with the downtown freeway network connecting to Interstate 45 and Interstate 35E. At the midpoint in the Corridor, there is a newly constructed interchange with Interstate 635. In the northern section, there is an interchange with the President George Bush Turnpike (PGBT).
The US-75 ICM Project is a collaborative effort between Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART), City of Dallas, Town of Highland Park, North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTCOG), North Texas Tollway Authority (NTTA), City of Plano, City of Richardson, Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT), the City of University Park and many local emergency service providers. The Team defined the Vision for the Corridor as "Operate the US-75 Corridor in a true multimodal, integrated, efficient, and safe fashion where the focus is on the transportation customer."
Using the Vision Statement as a starting point, the US-75 Steering Committee developed four primary Goals for the ICM:
The ICM system is comprised of three major subsystems, as shown in this Figure 4. One of the main components of the ICM System is SmartNET/SmartFusion, which gathers data from a variety of sources and delivers it to multiple destinations. Information is gathered from transportation systems, emergency management systems, dispatch systems for law enforcement, and other types of systems. The ICM System then makes this information available via a web server to traditional users such as Traffic Operations Centers, the Media, and Agency and public websites. The main purpose of the Dallas ICM System is to:
One of the unique aspects of the Traveler Information features for the 511 is the ability to display real time next bus times graphically with the maps.
The standards used in the Dallas ICM system are as follows:
The following are the benefits from the Dallas ICM project:
Also, there are a number of lessons learned that are worthwhile mentioning:
5.3. I-80 Integrated Corridor Mobility (ICM)/ Smart Corridor Project
This ICM Corridor covers the following:
The selected corridor is:
The vision of this ICM project is as follows:
The vision of the Smart Corridor Project is to address these conditions on I-80:
The project concepts that are being deployed are as follows:
In the transit management area, Transit Signal Priority is deployed on:
This gives preferential treatment to buses at signals. The system is integrating with Park & Ride facilities, as well as the Bay Area 511 system and real-time transit information.
Figure 7 shows a schematic of the system integration among various cities, AC Transit, emergency management and Caltrans.
As of April 29, 2015, signs are being tested on Westbound I-80. The installation of overhead signs across westbound I-80 between Richmond and Emeryville has been completed, and the new signs are being tested. Testing will continue intermittently through the summer, and will take place when traffic volumes are lowest. Motorists traveling the corridor during these times may see the word "TEST" displayed on overhead signs to warn motorists that electronic signs are being tested. Other symbols and numbers may be momentarily visible as well, such as green arrows, yellow arrows, red X's, checkerboard patterns or electronic speed limit signs displaying various numbers. Motorists will be notified of testing by changeable message signs at the side of the roadway. Roadside electronic speed limit signs are also being tested.
5.4. NY/NJ ICM-495 Project
The ICM-495 corridor is centrally located in New York / New Jersey metropolitan area with population of over 20 million people. The Corridor connects the New Jersey Turnpike (NJTP, a section of I-95) to Van Wyck Expressway (I-678) and traverses Midtown Manhattan. There are diverse residential, commercial and industrial uses that interact with the Corridor along its entire length. There are two regional key facilities - Lincoln Tunnel (connects NJ and Manhattan), and Queens-Midtown Tunnel (connects Manhattan and Queens). The Corridor encompasses an extensive highway network, including expressway facilities, their approach roads, and the surrounding principal and secondary arterial networks providing the circulatory system for the movement of people, goods, and services.
The vision of this project is to enhance the current transportation management systems of the ICM-495 Corridor by using state of practice solutions to build integrated, balanced, responsive, efficient, effective, and equitable programs and systems that actively reduce traveler demand; monitor and control traffic; and improve the mobility, reliability, and safety of all users. Solutions and resources will create a balanced network that reflects integration of pre-existing programs and systems with modified and new deployments. Improving overall Corridor performance will be a priority by providing better knowledge about real-time conditions and alternative travel options within practical operational, institutional, and financial constraints.
There are two key facilities and their infrastructure that will be leveraged:
ICM-495 will leverage and build upon ongoing programs, as follows:
8. Study Questions
1. Which of these is NOT a benefit of Integrated Corridor Management?
2. Which one of these device standards does not provide control and real time management?
3. Which one of these standards is NOT used in the Dallas ICM system?
9. Icon Guide
The following icons are used throughout the module to visually indicate the corresponding learning concept listed out below, and/or to highlight a specific point in the training material.