Transit Module 21: Mobile Fare Ticketing/Payment

HTML of the Student Supplement

(Note: This document has been converted from the Student Supplement to 508-compliant HTML. The formatting has been adjusted for 508 compliance, but all the original text content is included, plus additional text descriptions for the images, photos and/or diagrams have been provided below.)


Module 21: Mobile Fare Ticketing/Payment Apps

 

Table of Contents

Module Description - 2

Introduction/Purpose - 2

Samples/Examples - 2

Reference to Other Standards - 19

Case Studies - 19

Glossary - 23

References - 24

Study Questions - 25

Icon Guide - 26

 

1. Module Description

The Mobile Fare Payment module provides an overview of Mobile Fare Payment apps for transit and the ways in which they are deployed.

 

2. Introduction/Purpose

The Mobile Fare Payment module will focus on stakeholders and their roles, business models, and open architecture specifications including open Application Programming Interfaces (API) and integration with multimodal mobility services. Previous modules, Modules 10 and 12, covered banking and media standards associated with electronic fare payment including contactless cards, mobile banking, and account-based systems. These concepts will be incorporated in this module with respect to their application to mobile ticketing/payment systems.

 

3. Samples/Examples

The Module describes the Interoperable Fare Management System (IFMS) architecture and TCRP Synthesis 148 Mobile Fare Payment App business models. More detailed descriptions of these models are included in this section.

3.1. IFMS Architecture and Use Cases

3.1.1. IFMS Role-Based Architecture and Definitions

The IFMS role-based architecture, adapted from ISO/DIS 24014-1 version 3 and described in slide 34, is shown in Figure 1. The shapes in the concept model are described in Table 1.

 

The figure is the IFMS architecture. The diagram shows three main areas: External Systems Manager (blue), Interoperable fare managers (IFM) (orange/brown), and Identification manager (green). The External System Managers includes four boxes that describe different roles associated with the managers including “Media provider”, “media retailer”, Identity provider” and “payment provider”. The IFM includes boxes for “product owner”, “application owner”, “application retailer”, “product retailer”, “account provider”, “customer service”, “customer”, “passenger”, and “service operator”. It also includes a cloud labeled “collection and forwarding”. The Identification Manager including two boxes “security manager” and “registrar”. A double arrow connects the Identification Manager and IFM. The collection and forwarding cloud connects to the following boxes: application owner, product owner, media provider, media retailer, application retailer, product retailer, customer service, service operator, identity providers (via dotted line). The Customer is connected to the account provider and customer service (via dotted lines), application and product retailers, and payment provider. The passenger is connected to the service operator. The identify provider connects to the account provider, customer and collection and forwarding (via dotted line).

Figure 1: IFMS Concept Model

 

The diagram shows an instance of the IFMS architecture for open payment using a transit wallet. The diagram is divided into two parts, internal and external to the IFMS. Each part includes boxes that are notated as basic IFMS roles, additional roles or composite IFMS roles. The External to IFMS include two boxes: Merchant Acquirer (additional role), Bank Card Issuer (additional role). The Internal to the IFMS includes payment provider (an IFMS 24014-1 roles with an embedded box that says PAYG Balance Holder which is additional roles), PAYG Product Owner (basic IFMS role), Transport Service Operator (basic IFMS role), PAYG Top-Up Fulfiller (additional roles), PAYG Top-Up Retailer (basic IFMS role), Passenger (basic IFMS role). The following pairs are connected: Merchant acquirer and bank card issuer, Merchant Acquirer and Payg top-up retailer. Bank card issuer and passenger. Payment provider and payg product owner, payment provider and payg top-up retailer. Passenger and transport operator. Transit operator and payg product owner. Payg top-up retailer and payg top-up fulfiller.

Figure 2: IFMS Architecture applied to an Open Payment Model with Transit Wallet (source: IFMS-1 v3, Appendix B)

 

The diagram shows an instance of the IFMS architecture for open payment using a virtual bankcard. The diagram is divided into two parts, internal and external to the IFMS. Each part includes boxes that are notated as basic IFMS roles, additional roles or composite IFMS roles. The External to IFMS include one box: Payment Provider (composite IFMS roles) with two embedded boxes -- Merchant Acquirer (additional role), Bank Card Issuer (additional role). The Internal to the IFMS includes payment PAYG Product Owner (basic IFMS role), Transport Service Operator (basic IFMS role), and Passenger (basic IFMS role). The following pairs are connected: Merchant acquirer and bank card issuer, Merchant Acquirer and Payg product owner. Bank card issuer and passenger. Passenger and transport service operator. Transit operator and payg product owner.

Figure 3: IFMS Architecture applied to an Open Payment with Virtual Bankcard (source: IFMS-1 v3, Appendix B)

 

Table 1: IFMS Roles and Responsibilities

Role Responsibilities
Account Provider

The Account Provider supports the following functions:

  • provisioning and hosting of customer accounts
  • creates and validates Customer login credentials for access to a customer online account
Application Owner The Application Owner holds the application contract for the use of the application with the Customer.
Application Retailer The Application Retailer sells and terminates applications, collects, and refunds value to a Customer as authorized by an Application Owner. The Application Retailer is the only financial interface between the Customer and the IFMS related to applications.
Collection and Forwarding (set of functions)

The IFM-role of Collection and Forwarding is the facilitation of data interchanges of the IFMS. The general functions are data collection and forwarding. They contain at least the following functions:

Functions of collecting

  • Receiving application template from Application Owner.
  • Receiving product template from Product Owner.
  • Receiving data from Service Operators.
  • Receiving data from Product Retailer.
  • Receiving data from Application Retailer.
  • Receiving data from Media Retailer.
  • Receiving data from other collection and forwarding functions.
  • Receiving security list data from Security Manager.
  • Receiving clearing reports from Product Owner.
  • Consistency and completeness check of the data collected on a technical level.
  • Receiving the address list of all IFM-roles in the IFM from the Registrar.

Functions of forwarding

  • Forwarding "Not on Us" data to other collection and forwarding functions.
  • Recording "Not on Us" data.
  • Forwarding data with a corrupt destination address to the Security Manager.
  • Forwarding "On Us" data to the Product Owner for clearing and reporting.
  • Forwarding clearing reports, application template, product template, and security list data to the Product Retailer and Service Operator.
  • Forwarding application templates and security list data to the Application Retailer and Service Operator.

Note 1 to entry:
The concept of this connectivity functionality is as follows.

  • A specific Collection and Forwarding function is to collect data from one IFM-role and forward it to other IFM-roles.
  • Logically, there may be several Collection and Forwarding functions within the IFM.
  • IFM-roles may be linked to different Collection and Forwarding functions, but each IFM-role can only be linked to one.
  • The concept of "ON US and NOT ON US" addresses this connectivity functionality:
  • Data collected by a specific Collection and Forwarding function addressed to IFM-roles directly linked to this Collection and Forwarding function is termed "ON US" data.
  • Data collected by a specific Collection and Forwarding function addressed to IFM-roles not linked to this Collection and Forwarding function is termed "NOT ON US" data.
  • Data held by a specific Collection and Forwarding function is either "ON US" or "NOT ON US" data.
Customer

The Customer holds a customer medium with an application and acquires products in order to use the public transport services. In many cases, the Customer is also a Passenger. The Customer may also hold a personal account and external media or applications which may be used for purposes of the IFMS.

The Customer may acquire customer media, applications and products for himself or other Passengers. Examples

  • Parents may act as Customers and purchase products for their children.
  • Enterprises may act as Customers while the employees take the role of Passengers.
Customer Service Subject to commercial agreements, Customer Service may provide "helpline" and any similar facilities including replacement of stolen and damaged customer medium and consequent product reinstalling.
Identity Provider

The Identity Provider is an IFM-role which

  • establishes a trustworthy scheme for creating, managing and providing customer and media ID and related attributes
  • ensures consistency of customer ID across the IFMS according to the set of rules
  • is responsible for the enrolment of customer data and the creation of derived customer ID (which may be used for customer media or applications) according to an assurance level as specified by the specific set of identity rules
  • provides authentication or identification mechanisms for use in the mobility platform and the IFMS according to the required assurance level.
  • may use external ID services as sources of trustworthy customer identities or authentication or identification mechanisms

External Identity Providers may offer external ID services which are used by the IFM-internal Identity Provider as source of trustworthy ID data.

Media Provider The role of Media Provider: is to provide and release the media for the use with one or more applications.
Media Retailer

The role of the Media Retailer is required if the application requests special provisions like a

  • secure element that shall be supported by the medium.
  • holds the contract with the Application Retailer for the use of the medium by the Application template and the application,
  • holds the contract and related customer service in relation to the secure element community
  • loads the application template onto the medium or terminates the application template.
Passenger The Passenger uses a product to obtain the service provided by the service operator.
Payment Provider

A Payment Provider is the party that provides the function to pay for travel products with electronic transaction.

This can for example be a bank account accessed by direct debit or credit transfer, a payment card account accessed through an acquirer, a transport purse held by a Product Owner, or a mobile network operator.

One or more Payment Provider may be proposed to the Customer by the Product Retailer and the Customer will choose the one best suited for her/his purposes.

This does not apply for virtual accounts which are activated by contactless payment service. In such case, the payment will be conducted via the Payment Provider who is referenced by the contactless payment service.

The Account Provider makes payment requests to the Payment Provider on the basis of the travel consumed by the Passenger.

Product Owner

The Product Owner is responsible for his products.

Functions of ownership:

  • Specifying pricing, usage rules, and commercial rules.

Functions of clearing:

  • Trip reconstruction
  • Product aggregation based on received usage data using product definition rules (e.g. for usage-based products);
  • Linking of aggregated usage data with acquisition data;
  • Preparation of apportionment data based on product specification.

Functions of reporting:

  • Detailed:
    • acquisition data with no link to usage data within the reporting period;
    • usage data with no link to acquisition data within the reporting period;
    • linked aggregated product data within the reporting period.
  • Summary:
    • apportionment data and clearing report.
    • Total acquisition data.
Product Retailer

The Product Retailer sells and terminates products, collects, and refunds value to a Customer as authorized by a Product Owner.

The Product Retailer is the only financial interface between the Customer and the IFMS related to products.

Based on his Customer relationship, the role of the Product Retailer may include the role of the Account Provider.

Registrar After the certification, the Registrar issues unique registration codes for organizations, components, application templates, and product templates. The Registrar function also issues unique identifiers or rules for generating unique identifiers for the applications, products, and messages.
Security Manager

The Security Manager is responsible for establishing and coordinating the security policy and for

  • certification of organizations, application templates, components and product templates,
  • auditing of organizations, application templates/applications, components, and product templates/products,
  • monitoring the system, and
  • operation of the security of the IFMS, e.g. key management.
Service Operator The Service Operator provides a service to the Customer against the use of a product.

 

3.1.2. IFMS Use Case Examples

This section contains the example of IFMS Use Case and Information Flow between Roles (slides 49 and 50). The use case describes the Use and inspection of products.

Example 1: Product owner is the transit agency, the product may be a ticket, period pass or other product issued and tracked by the transit agency.

Example 2: Product owner is the customer using a virtual card that they store in their mobile app wallet.

Please see extended text description below.

(Extended Text Description: On the left side is a flow chart (from top to bottom). Brown box with Product Owner, Transit Agency to the Orange box with Passenger, Customer fare "QR code" in mobile app connected (tagged with label A) to the Brown box with Transport Service Operator, Transit Agency connected (tagged with label B) to the Blue cloud with Collection & Forwarding. The Collection & Forwarding cloud is connected (tagged with label C) to the Product Owner.

To the right is the following table:

Use case name Use and inspection of products
Outline The Service Operator checks and collects the data of a Customer Medium using the public transport service.
Triggered by Service Operator
Actor(s) Customer
Service Operator
Collection and Forwarding
Product Owner
Use case description

A Customer who uses a product on public transport. The use case consists of several processes performed by the Service Operator:

  • detection and verification of application;
  • detection, selection and verification of product;
  • verification of application and product according to security policies;
  • processing of product data;
  • communication between customer medium and Back Office;
  • computation of product rules;
  • collection of the product usage and inspection data;
  • distribution of product usage and inspection data to the Product Owner through the Collection and Forwarding.

Inspection consists of

  • simple detection,
  • detection and verification, or
  • detection, verification and further processing.

The table includes sections that are highlighted. Label A highlights the following text:

Service Operator:

Label B highlights the following text:

and:

Inspection consists of

Label C highlights the following text:

)

Figure 4: Use Case Example 1 - Transit Agency is Product Owner

 

Similar to the previous figure (figure 4) with a change in the flow diagram roles: On the left side of is a flow chart (from top to bottom). Orange box with Product Owner, Virtual Card to the Orange box with Passenger, Customer smart wallet device connected (tagged with label A) to the Brown box with Transport Service Operator, Transit Agency connected (tagged with label B) to the Blue cloud with Collection & Forwarding. The Collection & Forwarding cloud is connected (tagged with label C) to the Product Owner. Labels text is the same as previous figure 4.

Figure 5: Use Case Example 2 Product Owner is Customer using Virtual Bankcard

 

3.2. TCRP 148 Business Model Description

This section includes descriptions of the 5 business models from the TCRP Synthesis 148 (see page 41 on the slides). The descriptions from the research are extracted and listed in Table 2.

SmartArt of five blue shaded list boxes. The first includes a centralized graphic with five spokes, the second list graphic is of a label, the third list graphic is of a validator, the fourth list graphic is of a bank card icon, the last list graphic is of a hammer.

Figure 6: 5 Fare App Business Models Described by TCRP Synthesis 148

 

Table 2: TCRP Synthesis 148 Business Model Description (source: TCRP Synthesis 148)

Business Model Name Description
Shared App In a "shared app" model, multiple transit agencies in different regions use the same mobile fare payment app provided by a single vendor. This model is quick to implement and low in cost; a shared app can be configured in a few days to add specific fare types and some limited agency branding. However, this model typically does not include integration with preexisting fare payment systems, and validation of fares is typically done only by visual inspection. The case example for this model is the City of Santa Monica's Big Blue Bus.
White Label App This model is referred to as "white label" because the app is developed by a vendor but rebranded to look as if it were made by the transit agency. A white label app is relatively quick to deploy, comparatively low cost, and allows for configuration including specific fare types and some agency branding. When offered as a stand-alone system, white label apps are usually not integrated with preexisting fare payment systems, and they typically rely only on visual inspection for fare validation. Denver's Regional Transportation District is the case example of this model.
White Label App with Validation Hardware This model is similar to the previous one, except it also includes hardware for validation, such as readers installed on transit vehicles. An additional vendor is typically part of the contractual process to facilitate hardware installation and integration. The costs are usually higher, and the deployment time may be longer. The case example for this model is Austin's Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority.
Open Payment App This model applies to fare payment systems that are both standards based (commonly called open payment) and account-based. Riders download the transit agency's mobile fare payment app, which can be used to manage transit accounts by reloading value or purchasing passes. Transit accounts can be loaded into mobile wallets (e.g., Apple Pay, Google Pay) using virtual cards. Fare products can be validated in different ways, such as tapping Near Field Communication (NFC) on the user's phone at readers. Because this is still an emerging model and is usually part of a fully integrated system, costs are currently high; however, this could change in the future if other agencies adopt this model. The Chicago Transit Authority is the case example.
SDK Only The last model is an "SDK only" approach in which only a Software Development Kit (or SDK) is procured from a mobile fare payment app vendor. Then, the SDK can be integrated into other smartphone apps, such as real-time information or ridesourcing apps. This model appears to have relatively low costs (both upfront and ongoing). Validation is done visually by drivers, and there is typically limited integration with the transit agency's preexisting fare payment system. St. Catharine's Transit Commission is the case example of this model.

 

3.3. IFMS Architecture Applied to TCRP Business Model Descriptions

3.3.1. Shared App Model

Characteristics:

✓ Multiple agencies on same mobile app

✓ Agencies share common platform

✓ No hardware needed

✓ Validation methods

✓ Visual verification

✓ No integration with fare system

✓ Turnkey / service subscription

 

The diagram shows an instance of the IFMS architecture for a shared app business model. Two external system managers boxes with merchant acquirer and bank card issuer in each. Four blue boxes representing Shared App Vendor for the following IFM roles (1) Payment Provider (with an embedded white box with a tickets label), (2) Application Owner, (3) Top-Up Retailer/Fulfillment (POS), (4) Account provider. One green box representing Apple/Google store for the Application Retailer role. One orange box representing the customer smartphone for Passenger role. Two series of brown boxes representing one or more transit agencies for (1) product owner and (2) Transport Service Provider roles. The linkages are as follows: the Merchant acquirer is connected to the Bank Card issuer and the Top-up retailer/Fulfillment (POS). The Bank Card Issuer is also connected to the Account Provider. The Account Provider is connected to the Passenger. The Passenger is connected to the Transport Service Operator. The Transport Service Operator is connected to the Product Owner. The Product Owner is connected to the Application Retailer and the Payment Provider. The Payment Provider is connected to the Application Owner, and the Application Owner loads the application to the Application Retailer.

Figure 7: Shared App model using IFMS Architecture Roles

 

3.3.2. White Label App Model

White Label App Characteristics

✓ Single agency mobile app

✓ No hardware needed

✓ Validation Methods

✓ Visual verifiable

✓ QR code method

✓ Limited integration with fare system

✓ Turnkey / service subscription

 

The diagram shows an instance of the IFMS architecture for a white label app business model. Four blue boxes representing White Label App Vendor for the following IFM roles (1) Payment Provider (with an embedded white box with a tickets label), (2) Application Owner, (3) Top-Up Retailer/Fulfillment (POS), (4) Account provider. One green box representing Apple/Google store for the Application Retailer role. One orange box representing the customer smartphone for Passenger role. Two brown boxes representing the transit agency for (1) product owner and (2) Transport Service Provider roles. The linkages are as follows: The Account Provider is connected to the Passenger and Top-up Retailer/Fulfillment (POS). The Top-up Retailer/Fulfillment (POS) is also connected to the Product Owner and Payment Provider. The Passenger is connected to the Transport Service Operator and Top-up Retailer/Fulfillment (POS). The Transport Service Operator is connected to the Product Owner. The Payment Provider is connected to the Application Owner. The Application Owner loads the application to the Application Retailer which is downloaded to the Passenger smartphone.

Note: removed External Systems from this diagram

Figure 8: White Label App Model using IFMS Roles

 

3.3.3. White Label App with Hardware Model

White Label App with Hardware Characteristics

✓ Single/regional agency mobile app

✓ Hardware reader / validation

✓ Validation Methods

✓ QR code method

✓ NFC - Transit Wallet

✓ Limited integration with fare system

✓ Turnkey / service subscription

 

The diagram shows an instance of the IFMS architecture for a white label app with Hardware business model. Four blue boxes representing White Label App Vendor for the following IFM roles (1) Payment Provider (with an embedded white box with a tickets label), (2) Application Owner, (3) Top-Up Retailer/Fulfillment (POS), (4) Account provider, and blue cloud for the Collection and Forwarding function. One green box representing Apple/Google store for the Application Retailer role. One orange box representing the customer smartphone for Passenger role. Two brown boxes representing the transit agency for (1) product owner and (2) Transport Service Provider roles. The linkages are as follows: The Account Provider is connected to the Passenger and Top-up Retailer/Fulfillment (POS). The Top-up Retailer/Fulfillment (POS) is also connected to the Passenger and Payment Provider. The Passenger is connected to the Transport Service Operator and the Collection & Forwarding cloud. The Transport Service Operator is connected to the Product Owner. The Product Owner is connected to the Payment Provider. The Payment Provider is connected to the Application Owner. The Application Owner loads the application to the Application Retailer which is downloaded to the Passenger smartphone.

Figure 9: White Label App with Hardware Model using IFMS Roles

 

3.3.4. Open Payment using Bankcard Model

Open Payment using Bankcard Characteristics

✓ Transit's role is as a merchant

✓ Hardware validation using NFC

✓ Requires external identify and financial authentication of payment

 

The diagram shows an instance of the IFMS architecture for an open payment using bankcard business model. Two external system managers boxes with merchant acquirer and bank card issuer in each. One blue box representing Virtual Wallet for the Identify Provider. One green box representing Apple/Google store for the Application Retailer role. Two orange boxes representing the customer smartphone for Passenger and Product Owner roles. One brown box and cloud representing the transit agency and its validator/POS EFPS for (1) Transport Service Provider and Collection and Forwarding, respectively. The linkages are as follows: the Merchant acquirer is connected to the Bank Card issuer and the Collection and Forwarding cloud. The Bank Card Issuer is also connected to the Application Retailer. The Account Retailer is connected to the Product Owner. The Product Owner is connected to the Passenger; the passenger is connected to the Transport Service Operator. The Transport Service Operator is connected to the Collection and Forwarding functions.

Figure 10: Open Payment using Bankcard Model using IFMS Roles

 

3.3.5. Open Payment using Transit Wallet Model

Open Payment using Transit Wallet Characteristics

✓ Multimodal mobility and event product integration

✓ Hardware validation using NFC

✓ Requires external identity and financial authentication of payment

 

The diagram shows an instance of the IFMS architecture for an open payment using transit wallet business model. Two external system managers boxes with merchant acquirer and bank card issuer in each. One blue box representing Virtual Wallet for the Identify Provider. One green box representing Apple/Google store for the Application Retailer role. Two tan boxes representing the app vendor for the Application Owner and retailers for the Top-up Retailers/Fulfillers (POS). One orange box representing the customer smartphone for Passenger. Three brown boxes and cloud representing the transit agency and its validator/POS EFPS for (1) Transport Service Operator, Product Owner, Payment/Account Provider (EFPS) with embedded box with a Balance Holder label and Collection and Forwarding for the validator. The linkages are as follows: The Merchant acquirer is connected to the Bank Card issuer and the Collection and Forwarding cloud. The Bank Card Issuer is also connected to the Application Retailer. The Application Retailer is connected to the Application Owner and the Passenger. The Passenger is connected to the Identity Provider and the Transport Service Operator, the Payment/Account Provider and the Top-Up Retailer/Fulfiller (POS). The Payment/Account Provider is connected to the Product Owner and Top-Up Retailer/Fulfiller (POS). The Transport Service Operator is connected to the Collection and Forwarding functions.

Figure 11: Open Payment using Transit Wallet Model using IFMS Roles

 

3.3.6. Software Development Kit Model

Software Development Kit Characteristics

✓ Multimodal mobility and event product integration

✓ Hardware validation using either QR or NFC

✓ Centralized payment model

 

The diagram shows an instance of the IFMS architecture for an SDK business model. Legend – Blue box or cloud represents the EFPS. Dark brown box represents a mobility service provider. Brown box represents a Transit Operator. Tan box represents an App vendor. Green box represents an app store (Google or Apple). Orange box represents a customer (mobile app). Account Provider (blue box) with embedded box labeled Ticket Balance) is EFPS. Account Owner (blue box) is EFPS SDK. Product Owner (orange box) is Customer Mobile App. Transport Service Provider (series of brown boxes) is Transit Agency. Passenger (orange box) is Customer. Collection and Forwarding (blue cloud) is Validator/POS EFPS. Application Retailer (green box) is App Stores – Apple/Google. Account Provider (dark brown box) includes an embedded box labeled Balance Holder is Mobile Service Provider. Transport Service Operator (series of dark brown boxes) is Mobile Service Provider. Application Owner (series of tan, blue and dark brown boxes) represents one or more app vendors, EFPS or mobility service providers. Top-Up Retailer/Fulfillment (POS) (series of tan, blue and dark brown boxes) represents one or more app vendors, EFPS or mobility service providers. The linkages are as follows: The Account Provider (EFPS) is connected to the Application Owner and Product Owner. The Account Providers (EFPS and Mobility Service Providers) are connected to Top-up Retailer/Fulfillment (POS). The Account Provider (Mobility Service Provider) is connected to the Collection and Forwarding. The Passenger is connected to the Transport Service Operator and the Collection and Forwarding cloud. The Transport Service Operator is connected to the Product Owner and Transport Service Operator (Transit Agency). The Application Owner loads the application to the Application Retailer which is downloaded to the Product Owner smartphone.

Figure 12: Software Development Kit Model using IFMS Roles

 

4. Reference to Other Standards

Several standards enable mobile fare apps. The ones included in the module are listed below:

ISO/DIS 24014-1 Public transport Interoperable fare management system Part 1: Architecture

ISO/IEC 18004:2015 Information - Automatic identification and data capture techniques -QR Code barcode symbology specification

ISO/IEC 14443-2:2016 Part 2: Radio frequency power and signal interface

ISO/IEC 18092 / ECMA-340 Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol-1 (NFCIP-1)

ISO/IEC 21481 / ECMA-352 Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol-2 (NFCIP-2)

 

5. Case Studies

5.1. Selected Case Studies from Conference Proceedings

The American Public Transportation Association holds APTATech. There are many case studies and presentations from agencies, regions and vendors on lessons learned, emerging trends and challenges for mobile fare payment systems. See https://www.apta.com/conferences-events/aptatech/

The Secure Technology Alliance (SCT) includes a transportation group that publishes resources, white papers and reports on state of the practice multimodal payment systems. See https://www.securetechalliance.org/applications-transportation/ for a link to their reports and to their Knowledge Center or transportation payment.

5.2. Dallas Area Rapid Transit GoPass Case Study Presentation

Courtesy of Tina Morch-Pierre, DART

A timeline with the following labels from left to right: 2013 GoPass 1.0 Ticketing Trip planning Special events and offers Regional app, 2014 Admission Tickets State Fair of Texas Zoo CFC NCAA, 2015 Deep Linking Uber Lyft Zipcar, 2016 Introduced Corporate and University Pass, 2017 FTA Grant Recipient, 2018 GoPass 2.0 Real-time Cash-to-mobile Fare capping Apple Pay GoPass Wallet, 2019 GoPass 3.0 Multimodal Microtransit UberPool Bird Rideshare choices.

 

Please see extended text description below.

(Extended Text Description: The graphic shows a hand holding a smartphone with the screen of OCbus day pass visible. The functions of the app are described around the phone. They include the following:

Mature Multi-Agency Platform

Multi-Modal Trip Planning

Digital Payments & Cash to Mobile

Rider and Operator Safety & Security

Additional Rider Support

Regional Events and Wayfinding

Fully Integrated Microtransit

)

 

Author's relevent description: Composite graphic about GoPass – Transit’s best mobile solution - with text: Multi-modal trip planning - Digital Fares & Ticketing - Seamless Microtransit - Flexible Payment Modes - GoPass (star rating graph) 17.3K Ratings, 4.8 out of 5 (4 plus stars 4,4047)

 

6. Glossary

To include additional descriptions/acronyms used primarily in the module. Listed in alphabetical order.

Term Definition
Activation "The process of making a mobile fare product valid for a given period of time". [TCRP Synthesis 148]
Application Programming Interface (API) Set of communication protocols for exchanging information between one or more applications. Payment application owners sometimes provide open APIs.
Cryptocurrency Apps and Wallets

Mobile apps to manage and pay for services.

  • Examples of different crypto currency apps are: Coinbase, Blockchain.
Customer service for riders Technical support for app; sale support for sales and refunds, other commendations and complaints. [TCRP Synthesis 148]
Deep Link Relationship between multiple applications in which one app redirects users to another app
Fare Capping a fare policy that fixes the maximum amount a customer pays for rides over a specified time period such as a day, week, or month by tracking the amount spent by registered fare media such as a smart card or mobile fare app. The policy typically replaces period passes.
Host-based Card Emulation (HCE) A chip used as a secure element in a smartphone to secure the PII by using a unique alias or token in place of the sensitive information.
Hosting the app The software that implements the back-office functionality including account and user management, fare product, sales/refunds, reporting, etc. [TCRP Synthesis 148]
Marketing the app to riders Outreach and training materials to travelers and potential customers. This may include advertising and promotion of special services. [TCRP Synthesis 148]
Payment App Mobile app that provides sales, customer services and account management support to customers.
Payment processing Manages the financial transactions for sale transactions, validation, authentication, and tokenization. [TCRP Synthesis 148]
PCI Compliance Payment Card Industry security standards certification to protect device, data and functions of the system. Credit card companies and banks require annual PCI testing to ensure compliance. [TCRP Synthesis 148]
Peer-to-peer payment apps Mobile app that enables the electronic transfer of money between two bank accounts. Examples of peer to peer payment apps include Venmo, Paypal.Me, clearXchange
Point of Sales Sales channel where customers purchase fare media and products.
Proof of payment Validates a fare product when proof of payment is required. Fare products include period pass or ticket was bought and activated
Software Development Kit (SDK) Set of libraries, documentation or tools which may also include APIs that can be tailored by an app.
Tokenization Is the process used to generate a token for the information, storing the token in an HCE, and storing the PII in a more secure environment (https://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/tokenization).
Validation In transit fare payment systems, this refers to the process or method used to assure that fare products are not fraudulent or expired [and have sufficient funds to pay the fare]. [TCRP SA-46]
Virtual card An electronic replica of a physical card and it usually contains a randomly generated credit card number that change every time your credit card is used for a purchase. [https://creditcards.usnews.com/articles/virtual-credit-cards-explained] extracted Jan 23, 2020.
Virtual wallet

Store virtual cards that emulate contactless bankcards (support ISO 14443 and NFC) stored in a mobile operating system "wallet".

  • Bank cards such as PNC
  • Ventra Apple wallet (Ventra is the Chicago area multiagency fare system)
  • OMNY Google wallet
Walled Garden Closed ecosystem in which all operations are controlled by the ecosystem operator.

 

7. References

Brakewood, C. (2020). Mobile Fare APPs Business Models. TCRP, Synthesis 148 (from TCRP Synthesis J-07/Topic SA-46 Mobile Fare APPs Business Models). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Kok, J., & Lipták, R. (2020). Multimodal Fare Payment Integration. TCRP, Synthesis 144, pp.86. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Okunieff, P. (2017). Multiagency Electronic Fare Payment Systems. TCRP, Synthesis 125, pp.131. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

 

8. Study Questions

To include the quiz/poll questions and answer choices as presented in the PowerPoint slide to allow students to either follow along with the recording or refer to the quiz at a later date in the supplement.

1. Who does the primary marketing of an agency's fare app to riders?

  1. Vendor
  2. Social Media
  3. Agency
  4. App Store

2. What payment access method is most proprietary?

  1. SDK
  2. API
  3. Walled Garden
  4. Deep Link

3. What is a Software Development Kit?

  1. A stand-alone application can be installed on a workstation
  2. A first aid kit for your computer
  3. A set of interfaces that can be used to exchange information between two applications
  4. A software library for building applications, interfaces, and user interfaces

4. Which of the following is an incorrect statement related to the RTD Mobile App?

  1. The RTD mobile fare app is implemented as a SaaS
  2. RTD manages the interface with Uber
  3. RTD uses visual verifiable validation of mobile fare products
  4. All fare products offered on RTD's mobile fare app are also offered on the Uber app

 

9. Icon Guide

The following icons are used throughout the module to visually indicate the corresponding learning concept listed out below, and/or to highlight a specific point in the training material.

1) Background information: General knowledge that is available elsewhere and is outside the module being presented. This will be used primarily in the beginning of slide set when reviewing information readers are expected to already know.

Background information icon indicates general knowledge that is available elsewhere and is outside the module being presented.

2) Tools/Applications: An industry-specific item a person would use to accomplish a specific task, and applying that tool to fit your need.

Tools/Applications icon. An industry-specific item a person would use to accomplish a specific task, and applying that tool to fit your need.

3) Remember: Used when referencing something already discussed in the module that is necessary to recount.

Remember icon. Used when referencing something already discussed in the module that is necessary to recount.

4) Refer to Student Supplement: Items or information that are further explained/detailed in the Student Supplement.

Supplement icon indicating items or information that are further explained/detailed in the Student Supplement.

5) Example: Can be real-world (case study), hypothetical, a sample of a table, etc.

Example icon. Can be real-world (case study), hypothetical, a sample of a table, etc.

6) Checklist: Use to indicate a process that is being laid out sequentially.

Checklist icon used to indicate a process that is being laid out sequentially.

↑ Return to top