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ITS ePrimer Presentation

Module 13: Connected Vehicles

(Note: The following PowerPoint presentation is a supplement to the module.)

Slide 1: ITS ePrimer Module 13: Connected Vehicles

Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) ePrimer

September 2013

Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office Research and Innovative Technology Administration, USDOT

Author Notes for Slide 1:

This is the first, title slide in all modules.

The following slides are in this order:

  • Instructor
  • Learning Objectives
  • Content-related slide(s)
  • Summary (what we have learned)
  • References
  • Questions?

This module is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation's ITS Professional Capacity Building (PCB) Program. The ITS PCB Program is part of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration's ITS Joint Program Office.

Thank you for participating and we hope you find this module helpful.

Slide 2: Instructor

This is a headshot photo of Christopher Hill, Ph.D., PMP, Senior Associate, Booz Allen Hamilton, Washington, DC USA.

Christopher Hill, Ph.D., PMP
Senior Associate
Booz Allen Hamilton
Washington, DC, USA

Slide 3: Learning Objectives

  1. Provide an overview of the connected vehicle program
  2. Understand history, evolution, and future direction of connected vehicle program
  3. Understand partnership and roles of government and industry
  4. Understand basic technologies and core systems
  5. Understand key policy, legal, and funding issues

Author Notes for Slide 3:

Users of this module will:

  • Be provided with an overview of the national connected vehicle program.
  • Understand the history, evolution, and expected future direction of the connected vehicle program, including the major milestones.
  • Understand the partnership between government and industry, and the roles of each partner that will be fundamental to a successful connected vehicle program.
  • Understand the basic technologies and the various core system components that must be deployed to realize the connected vehicle environment.
  • Understand the key policy, legal, and funding issues that must be addressed to ensure the successful deployment of a connected vehicle environment.

Slide 4: Definition of a Connected Vehicle Environment

Wireless connectivity among vehicles, the infrastructure, and mobile devices, resulting in transformative change to:

  • Highway safety
  • Mobility
  • Environmental impacts
This is an illustration of an urban road with two lanes traveling in each direction. There are cars, buses, trucks, and emergency vehicles on the road. To the right of the road is a train. Yellow rings surround each type of vehicle. White lines are drawn from the top of a street post, to each vehicle to represent wireless connectivity. Source: USDOT.

Source: USDOT

Author Notes for Slide 4:

Premise of the Connected Vehicle Environment lies in the power of wireless connectivity among vehicles, the infrastructure, and mobile devices to bring about transformative changes in highway safety, mobility, and the environmental impacts of the transportation system.

Connected Vehicles refer to the ability of vehicles of all types to communicate wirelessly with other vehicles and roadway equipment, such as traffic signals, to support a range of safety, mobility, and environmental applications of interest to the public and private sectors. Vehicles include light, heavy, and transit vehicles. The concept also extends to compatible aftermarket devices brought into vehicles and to pedestrians, motorcycles, cyclists, and transit users carrying compatible devices. Collectively, these components form the Connected Vehicle Environment.

Slide 5: Wireless Communications for Connected Vehicles

Core technology for Connected Vehicle applications

  • Safety-related systems to be based on Dedicated Short Range Communications
  • Non-safety applications may be based on other technologies
  • DSRC characteristics:
    • 75 MHz of bandwidth at 5.9 GHz
    • Low latency
    • Limited interference
    • Performance under adverse conditions
This image illustrates wireless communication for connected vehicles. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This image illustrates wireless communication for connected vehicles. The illustration shows the back seat vantage point in a vehicle, and shows the driver and passenger seats, steering wheel, and central control panel as the vehicle approaches two red traffic lights. On the screen installed in the front control panel, a white warning box appears and reads "Stop Ahead.")

Source: USDOT

Author Notes for Slide 5:

There will be further discussion of communications technologies later in the module.

In general, safety-related applications are expected to rely on DSRC, while other, non-safety-related applications may use other forms of wireless communications, such as cellular or Wi-Fi.

DSRC uses spectrum dedicated by the FCC in 2004 for transportation safety applications.

DSRC has key functional attributes that may make it suitable for these applications:

  • Low latency - very short delays in opening and closing connections between vehicles or vehicle and the infrastructure
  • Limited interference - robust in the face of other radio interference; short-range so largely unaffected by distant radio sources
  • Maintains performance levels during adverse weather conditions

Slide 6: Connected Vehicle Benefits

Connected Vehicles will benefit the public good by:

  • Reducing highway crashes
    • Potential to address up to 81% of unimpaired crashes
  • Improving mobility
  • Reducing environmental impact

Additional benefits to public agency transportation system management and operations

Author Notes for Slide 6:

Connected Vehicles will serve the public good in a number of ways:

  • Highway crashes can be dramatically reduced when vehicles can sense and communicate the events and hazards around them.
    • Research conducted by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center for NHTSA found that deployment of Connected Vehicle systems and the combined use of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) applications have the potential to address 81 percent of unimpaired driver crashes in all vehicle types (e.g., cars and heavy vehicles).
  • Mobility can be improved when drivers, transit riders, and freight managers have access to up-to-date, accurate, and comprehensive information on travel conditions and options; and when system operators, including roadway agencies, public transportation providers, and port and terminal operators, have actionable information and the tools to affect the performance of the transportation system in real time.
  • Environmental impacts of vehicles and travel can be reduced when travelers can make informed decisions about modes and routes, and when vehicles can communicate with the infrastructure to enhance fuel efficiency by avoiding unnecessary stops.

Transportation system management and operations can be enhanced when system operators can continuously monitor the status and direct the various assets under their control.

Slide 7: Historical Context

Current program results from more than a decade of research:

  • 2003 - Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII) program formed by USDOT, AASHTO, and carmakers
  • 2006 - VII Concept of Operations published by USDOT
  • 2008-2009 - VII Proof-of-Concept in Michigan and California
  • 2010-2011 - VII renamed to Connected Vehicle program

Author Notes for Slide 7:

In 2003, USDOT, in partnership with other entities including the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) and a number of light-duty vehicle manufacturers, initiated the Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII) program to conduct research and move ultimately to deployment.

An initial technical concept for the VII program was comprehensively documented in a Concept of Operations published by USDOT in 2006. This early approach called for vehicles manufactured in the United States to be equipped with On-Board Equipment (OBE)—a communications device, a positioning device, a processing platform, and application software. The OBEs would exchange data with Road Side Equipment (RSE), which would be deployed along highways. The OBEs would also be required to communicate with other OBEs for vehicle-to-vehicle data exchange.

USDOT conducted a Proof-of-Concept (POC) test between 2008 and 2009 on specially designed test beds in Oakland County, Michigan, and Palo Alto, California. The POC tests were limited in scope—comprising fewer than 30 light-duty vehicles, using draft DSRC standards, and focusing on partially developed applications—but proved that the basic technical concept would work.

Between 2010 and 2011, the federal VII evolved into the current Connected Vehicle program.

Slide 8: Connected Vehicle Program Today

Current research addresses key strategic challenges:

  • Remaining technical challenges
  • Testing to determine actual benefits
  • Determining if benefits are sufficient to warrant implementation
  • Issues of public acceptance

Author Notes for Slide 8:

The Connected Vehicle program has moved to addressing a set of key strategic challenges as follows:

  • To resolve remaining technical challenges;
  • To conduct testing to determine the actual benefits of applications;
  • To determine whether overall benefits are sufficient to warrant implementation, and, if so, how the systems would be implemented; and
  • To address issues of public acceptance such as maintaining user privacy and whether systems in vehicles are effective, safe, and easy to use.

Slide 9: Key Decision Points

  • Decisions to be made on core technologies:
    • 2013 NHTSA agency decision on implementation of DSRC in light vehicles
    • 2014 decision regarding DSRC in heavy vehicles
    • Information to support the decision will come from multiple sources, including the Safety Pilot Model Deployment
This is the logo for the USDOT Safety Pilot Model Deployment of Connected Vehicle Technology. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This is the logo for the USDOT Safety Pilot Model Deployment of Connected Vehicle Technology. At the top of the image is the USDOT logo with U.S. Department of Transportation to its right in blue. Below that, four transportation icons are lined up in a row. From left to right, the orange icons represent a bus, a truck, a car, and traffic light. Below the icons are the words "Safety Pilot" in all capital letters. "Safety" is in bold. Below the program name are the words "Connected Vehicle Technology" written in orange in all capital letters.)

Author Notes for Slide 9:

Central to the research that is currently being undertaken is a determination of the potential benefits of the Connected Vehicle system and the evaluation of driver acceptance of vehicle-based safety systems.

This component of the research program will provide factual evidence needed to support a 2013 NHTSA agency decision on the deployment of core Connected Vehicle technologies for light vehicles and a similar 2014 decision for heavy vehicles by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA).

Empirical data that will be critical to supporting the 2013 NHTSA agency decision will be derived in part from a Safety Pilot Model Deployment.

Slide 10: Connected Vehicle Safety Pilot

  • 2,800 vehicles (cars, buses, and trucks) equipped with V2V devices
  • Provide data for determining the technologies' effectiveness at reducing crashes
  • Includes vehicles with embedded equipment and others that use aftermarket devices or a simple communications beacon
This is a map of site plan for the Safety Pilot Model Deployment program in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This is a map of site plan for the Safety Pilot Model Deployment program in Ann Arbor, Michigan. On this map, are major roadways in the Ann Arbor area. On this map, icons are placed in the location where different connected vehicle technology will be installed. On the left side of the map the icons for the various technologies are defined. Beginning at the top, the following are the items included in the legend: a tan highlighted area represents primary model deployment routes, a white "H" in a blue box represents the University of Michigan Campus/Medical Center (Primary Driver Recruitment Area), a white exclamation point in an orange diamond represents proposed curve warning locations, a light orange building represents UMTRI Facilities (showcases, facilities, equipment and data storage), an orange circle represents roadside equipment co-located with freeway ITS installation, a teal traffic light represents roadside equipment co-located with actuated traffic signals, a yellow traffic light represents roadside equipment/SPaT-enabled traffic signal, and a teal circle represents prototype solar/cellular roadside equipment installation. For additional relevant information on this map, please see the Author Notes below.)

Image source: USDOT

Author Notes for Slide 10:

The Safety Pilot Model Deployment collects data under real-world conditions at a test site in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Approximately 2,800 vehicles are equipped with V2V devices. The goal is to create a highly concentrated Connected Vehicle communications environment.

The devices to be tested include embedded, aftermarket, and a simple communications beacon. All of these devices emit a basic safety message 10 times per second, which forms the basic data stream that other in-vehicle devices will use to determine when a potential conflict exists. When these data are further combined with the vehicle's own data, it creates a highly accurate data set that is the foundation for cooperative, crash avoidance safety applications.

Using a mix of cars, trucks, and transit vehicles, the Safety Pilot Model Deployment will create test data sets for determining the technologies' effectiveness at reducing crashes.

The Model Deployment ran from the summer of 2012 to the summer of 2013.

Slide 11: Safety Pilot V2V Applications

  • Applications to be tested include:
    • Forward Collision Warning
    • Electronic Emergency Brake Lights
    • Blind Spot Warning/Lane Change Warning
    • Intersection Movement Assist
    • Do Not Pass Warning
    • Left Turn Assist
This is an illustration of cars, trucks and buses at a busy intersection. Every transportation vehicle has three concentric yellow signal rings surrounding them. These rings represent the possibility of vehicles connecting or communicating data to one another.

Source: USDOT

Author Notes for Slide 11:

The Safety Pilot Model Deployment emphasizes Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications for Safety—the wireless exchange of data between nearby vehicles to achieve safety improvements. By exchanging position, speed, and location data, V2V communications enables a vehicle to sense threats and hazards with an awareness of the position of vehicles relative to each other, as well as the threat or hazard they present; calculate risk; issue driver advisories or warnings; or other actions to avoid or mitigate crashes.

The vision for V2V safety applications is that eventually, each vehicle on the roadway (inclusive of automobiles, trucks, buses, motorcoaches, and motorcycles) will be able to communicate with other vehicles and that this rich set of data and communications will support a new generation of active safety applications and safety systems.

Additional development work is still needed to address more complex crash scenarios, such as head-on collision avoidance, intersection collision avoidance, pedestrian crash warning, and extending the capabilities to prevent motorcycle crashes.

Slide 12: V2I Safety Applications

  • Use data exchanged between vehicles and roadway infrastructure to identify high-risk situations and issue driver alerts and warnings
    • Traffic signals will communicate signal phase and timing (SPaT) data to vehicles to deliver active safety messages to drivers
There are two diagrams in this slide. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: There are two diagrams in this slide. In top diagram, a car is depicted approaching a four-way intersection. There are two red arrows one on top of the other, pointing to the opposite side of the intersection. On that opposite side, there is a traffic light showing a red light This traffic light is labeled "Driver Infrastructure Interface (DII) (dynamic signal)." To the right of the traffic light, just off the intersection, there is a picture of a gray box labeled RSE/SPAT. To the right of the vehicle, there is a rectangular text box pointing to the vehicle. Inside the bubble is red and white triangle with a red exclamation point inside. To the right of the triangle is a traffic light with a red. The text box is labeled "Driver Vehicle Interface (DVI) Example (static alert message)."

In the bottom diagram, a car is depicted driving on a curved road. The two red arrows pointing up in front of the vehicle indicate that the car is approaching the curve. To the right of the curve, there is a dark rectangular box, with three blue arcs being emitted from the box. A rectangular text box is on the right side of the vehicle, pointing to the car. Inside the text box is a red and white triangular warning sign with a red exclamation point in the center. The right of this sign is an icon showing a vehicle approaching a bend in the road and swerving tire tracks behind it. A red arrow goes from the car off the road, away from the curve. Underneath is says "Driver Vehicle Interface (DVI) Example.")

Source: USDOT

Author Notes for Slide 12:

Wireless exchange of critical safety and operational data between vehicles and highway infrastructure, intended primarily to avoid or mitigate motor vehicle crashes.

V2I safety applications transform roadway infrastructure equipment by incorporating algorithms that use data to perform calculations that recognize high-risk situations in advance, resulting in driver alerts and warnings through specific countermeasures.

One particularly important advance is the ability for traffic signal systems to communicate the signal phase and timing (SPaT) information to the vehicle to support the delivery of active safety advisories and warnings to drivers.

Slide 13: Typical V2I Safety Applications

  • Candidate applications under development include:
    • Red Light Warning
    • Curve Speed Warning
    • Stop Sign Gap Assist
    • Railroad Crossing Violation Warning
    • Spot Weather Impact Warning
    • Oversize Vehicle Warning
    • Reduced Speed/Work Zone Warning
There are two diagrams in this slide. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: There are two diagrams in this slide. The top is a diagram of a car driving up a straight road. Ahead and to the left of the vehicle are pictures of an RWIS and RSE systems next to one another. The RWIS is represented by an image of a pole with many devices installed along the length of the pole. The RSE system is represented by a gray box with blue arcs coming from the bottom of the picture. Ahead of the vehicle to the right, there is a diamond yellow street sign. With a warning light above and below the diamond, the sign reads "FOG." This sign is labeled "Driver Infrastructure Interface (DII) (static or dynamic sign)". Pointing to the vehicle are three separate text boxes containing Driver Vehicle Interface (DVI) examples. Each of these boxes contains a red and white triangular warning sign with an exclamation point in the middle. Next to each warning sign is a different image per box. The top image is of a yellow diamond roadsign that says "Fog." To the right of the warning image in the second box is a snowflake. The right of the warning sign in the third text box is a picture of a car with swerving tire marks behind it.

The bottom diagram shows vehicle traveling up a straight road. Ahead of the vehicle are four orange circles arranged diagonally to close the lane and merge traffic. To the right is a Driver Infrastructure Interface (DII) (static or dynamic sign). In this case, the sign is black and orange with three arrow heads pointing left to communicate a need to change lanes. Ahead of the vehicle on the left is a Portable RSE, indicated by a gray box with blue arcs coming from the bottom. Pointing to the vehicle are two text boxes with examples of a Driver Vehicle Interface (DVI). Both text boxes contain a red and white warning sign with an exclamation point. To the right of the warning sign in the top box, there is an orange diamond sign with the lane-ending/merge symbol. To the right of the warning sign in the lower box, there is a yellow diamond sign with a white rectangular sign that says "Speed Limit 45".)

Source: USDOT

Author Notes for Slide 13:

V2I safety applications may provide a graduated spectrum of safety solutions from in-vehicle information and advisories to in-vehicle driver warnings of imminent crash scenarios. The USDOT Connected Vehicle research program is examining a number of potential V2I safety applications listed on this slide. Early implementation of SPaT-based applications may enable near-term benefits from V2I communications, such as through the reduction of red light running collisions.

Slide 14: Connected Vehicle Mobility Applications

  • Provide an interconnected, data-rich travel environment
  • Used by transportation managers to optimize operations, focusing on reduced delays and congestion
This is a diagram illustrating how the USDOT has bundled the dynamic mobility applications for various transportation system environments. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: Relevant author information for this diagram: This is a diagram illustrating how the USDOT has bundled the dynamic mobility applications for various transportation system environments. The five major environments identified by the USDOT are represented by three serially overlapping orange circles. These environments include: Arterial Data Environments, Freeway Data Environments, Regional (INFO) Data Environments, and Corridor (Control) Data Environments. Connected to each of these environments by dotted blue lines are programs that fall into the environment category. Programs are shown as hexagons in either green or yellow. Green indicates the program is funded. Yellow indicates the program is supported but not funded.)

Author Notes for Slide 14:

Connected vehicle mobility applications will provide an interconnected, data-rich travel environment. Real-time data will be captured from equipment located onboard cars, trucks, and buses and from the network of Connected Vehicle field infrastructure. These data will be transmitted wirelessly and used by transportation managers in a wide range of applications to manage the transportation system for optimum performance.

USDOT has bundled the dynamic mobility applications for various transportation system environments as illustrated on this slide.

Slide 15: Potential Dynamic Mobility Applications

  • EnableATIS - support sharing of travel information
  • IDTO - support transit mobility, operations, and services
  • MMITSS - maximize arterial flows for transit, freight, emergency vehicle, and pedestrians
  • INFLO - optimize flow with queue warning and speed harmonization
  • R.E.S.C.U.M.E. - support incident management and mass evacuations
  • FRATIS - freight-specific information systems or drayage optimization

Author Notes for Slide 15:

Enable Advanced Traveler Information Systems (EnableATIS) provide an end-state traveler information network focused on multimodal integration, data sharing, end-to-end trip perspectives, and use of analytics and logic to generate predictive information specific to users.

Integrated Dynamic Transit Operations (IDTO) includes protecting transfers between transit and nontransit modes; requesting a trip and generating itineraries containing multiple transportation services; or carpooling where drivers and riders arrange trips within a relatively short time of departure.

Multi-Modal Intelligent Traffic Signal Systems (MMITSS) will provide overarching system optimization that accommodates transit and freight signal priority, preemption for emergency vehicles, and pedestrian movements while maximizing overall arterial network performance.

Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) consists of applications related to queue warning, speed harmonization, and cooperative adaptive cruise control.

Response, Emergency Staging and Communications, Uniform Management, and Evacuation (R.E.S.C.U.M.E.) will solve problems faced by emergency management agencies, emergency medical services (EMS), and persons requiring assistance during traffic incidents and mass evacuations.

Freight Advanced Traveler Information Systems (FRATIS) provide freight-specific dynamic travel planning and performance information, or optimize drayage operations so that load movements are coordinated between freight facilities to reduce empty-load trips.

Slide 16: Connected Vehicle Transit Applications

  • Three Integrated Dynamic Transit Operations (IDTO) applications developed:
    • Dynamic Transit Operations (T-DISP)
    • Connect Protection (T-CONNECT)
    • Dynamic Ridesharing (D-RIDE)
  • Additional transit safety applications in the Safety Pilot:
    • Emergency Electronic Brake Lights (EEBL)
    • Forward Collision Warning (FCW)
    • Vehicle Turning Right in Front of Bus Warning (VTRW)
    • Curve Speed Warning (CSW)
    • Pedestrian in Crosswalk Warning (PCW)

Author Notes for Slide 16:

The IDTO bundle of applications developed within the DMA program comprises three applications:

T-DISP is the ability of a traveler to access real-time information about available travel options, including costs and predicted time, in order to best manage their commute. T-DISP integrates information from multiple modes and providers, and combines this schedule and vehicle location information with the positioning and connectivity capabilities of today's smartphones.

T-CONNECT serves to improve the experience for a transit traveler by increasing the likelihood of making successful transfers, particularly when these transfers are multimodal or multi-agency. The system determines, through a series of decisions, whether this request can be fulfilled, and the result is communicated to the traveler. If granted, the traveler will continue to receive status updates, particularly if subsequent conditions prevent the connection from being met.

D-RIDE takes the concept of traditional preplanned ridesharing (i.e., carpooling) and expands it by leveraging the positioning, messaging, and computing capabilities of today's smartphones, and advancing an application that will let drivers and travelers, in near real-time, exchange information about needs or, in the case of a driver, available space.

The Safety Pilot Model Deployment collects data under real-world conditions at a test site in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and includes five Transit Safety Applications :

Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) Applications

  • Emergency Electronic Brake Lights (EEBL)
  • Forward Collision Warning (FCW)
  • Vehicle Turning Right in Front of Bus Warning (VTRW)

Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) Applications

  • Curve Speed Warning (CSW)
  • Pedestrian in Crosswalk Warning (PCW)

Slide 17: Connected Vehicle Environmental Applications

  • Generate and capture relevant, real-time transportation data to support environmentally friendly travel choices for:
    • Travelers
    • Road operating agencies
    • Car, truck, and transit drivers

Author Notes for Slide 17:

Connected Vehicle environmental applications generate and capture environmentally relevant, real-time transportation data, and use these data to create actionable information to support environmentally friendly transportation choices.

These applications will support system users and operators in making decisions about green transportation alternatives or options. Using these applications, travelers may avoid congested routes, take alternate routes or public transit, or reschedule their trip—all of which can make their trip more fuel-efficient and eco-friendly.

Data generated from connected vehicle systems can also provide operators with detailed, real-time information on vehicle location, speed, and other operating conditions. This information can be used to improve system operation.

Onboard equipment may also advise drivers of various types of vehicles on how to optimize the vehicle's operation and maintenance for maximum fuel efficiency.

Slide 18: USDOT AERIS Program

  • Research on connected vehicle environmental applications conducted within the AERIS program
This is a graphically designed image for the AERIS program. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This is a graphically designed image for the AERIS program with the title "Cleaner Air Through Smarter Transporation." Under the title at the top left is the logo for AERIS: an outline of a leaf on a three-dimensionally shaded gray circle with as three dimensional silver ring around it. Above the logo, the slogan "Cleaner Air Through Smarter Transportation" is written in green. In the middle of the image, a vehicle has yellow concentric rings surrounding it, driving along a wavy road past lamp posts and two traffic lights, also with three concentric rings surrounding it. There are graphical design flourishes on the road in the distance. Below the green road is gray and white images of people in front of monitor displays, concentric rings, and binary numbers. The title "AERIS: Applications for the Environment Real-Time Information Synthesis" appears at the bottom. The U.S. Department of Transportation logo appears on the lower left side of the image.)

Author Notes for Slide 18:

Within the USDOT Connected Vehicle research program, the development of environmental applications is taking place through the Applications for the Environment: Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) program.

The objective of the AERIS research program is to generate and acquire environmentally relevant real-time transportation data, and use these data to create actionable information that supports and facilitates green transportation choices by transportation system users and operators.

Slide 19: Connected Vehicle Environmental Applications

  • Generate and capture relevant, real-time transportation data to support environmentally friendly travel choices
    • Travelers avoid congestion, take alternate routes or transit, or reschedule their trip to be more fuel-efficient
    • Operators receive real-time information on vehicle location, speed, and other operating conditions to improve system operation
    • Drivers optimize the vehicle's operation and maintenance for maximum fuel efficiency

Author Notes for Slide 19:

Connected Vehicle environmental applications generate and capture environmentally relevant, real-time transportation data, and use this data to create actionable information to support environmentally friendly transportation choices.

These applications will support system users and operators in making decisions about green transportation alternatives or options. Using these applications, travelers may avoid congested routes, take alternate routes or public transit, or reschedule their trip—all of which can make their trip more fuel-efficient and eco-friendly.

Data generated from connected vehicle systems can also provide operators with detailed, real-time information on vehicle location, speed, and other operating conditions. This information can be used to improve system operation.

Onboard equipment may also advise vehicle owners on how to optimize the vehicle's operation and maintenance for maximum fuel efficiency.

Slide 20: Potential AERIS Concepts

  • Eco-Signal Operations - Optimize roadside and traffic signal equipment to collect and share relevant positional and emissions data to lessen transportation environmental impact.
  • Dynamic Eco-Lanes - Like HOT and HOV lanes but optimized to support freight, transit, alternative fuel, or regular vehicles operating in eco-friendly ways
  • Dynamic Low Emissions Zones - Similar to cordon areas with fixed infrastructure but designed to provide incentives for eco-friendly driving

Author Notes for Slide 20:

The Eco-Signal Operations Transformative Concept is intended to use Connected Vehicle technologies to decrease fuel consumption, and greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria air pollutant emissions by reducing idling, the number of stops, and unnecessary accelerations and decelerations, and improving traffic flow at signalized intersections.

The Dynamic Eco-Lanes Transformative Concept features dedicated lanes optimized for the environment, referred to as eco-lanes. Eco-lanes are optimized for the environment through the use of Connected Vehicle data to target low-emission, high-occupancy, freight, transit, and alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs). Drivers of suitable vehicles are able to opt in to these dedicated eco-lanes.

The Dynamic Low Emissions Zone Transformative Concept includes a geographically defined area that seeks to restrict or deter access by specific categories of high-polluting vehicles to improve the air quality within the area. Low-emissions zones can be dynamic, allowing the operating entity to change the location, boundaries, fees, or time of the low-emissions zone.

Slide 21: Connected Vehicle Technology

  • Onboard or mobile equipment
  • Roadside equipment
  • Communications systems
  • Core systems
  • Support systems
This is a photograph of a blue freight truck next to a red car at an intersection. Also located at the intersection are three overhead traffic signals, and a pedestrian crossing signal. The truck, car, traffic signals and crosswalk signals each have three yellow concentric circles surrounding them.

Source: USDOT

Author Notes for Slide 21:

Onboard equipment (OBE) or mobile equipment is the systems or devices through which most end users will interact with the Connected Vehicle Environment. Other technologies are necessary to provide basic information used in Connected Vehicle applications including location, speed, and heading from GPS or other sensors. Additional sensor data, such as windshield wiper status or anti-lock braking or traction control activation, may be beneficial in certain applications.

Roadside equipment (RSE) provides connectivity between vehicles and roadside systems, such as systems integrated with traffic signal controllers.

Communications systems is the infrastructure needed to provide network connectivity from RSEs to other system components.

Core systems facilitate interactions among vehicles, field infrastructure, and back office users.

Support systems include the security credentials management systems that allow devices and systems in the Connected Vehicle Environment to establish trust relationships.

Slide 22: Dedicated Short-Range Communications

  • Technologies developed for vehicular communications
    • FCC allocated 75 MHz of spectrum in 5.9 GHz band
    • To be used to protect the safety of the traveling public
  • A communications protocol similar to WiFi
    • Derived from the IEEE 802.11 standard
    • DSRC includes WAVE Short Message protocol defined in IEEE 1609 standard
  • Typical range of a DSRC access point is 300 m
    • Typical installations at intersections and other roadside locations

Author Notes for Slide 22:

DSRC technologies were developed specifically for vehicular communications. In 2004, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) published a Report and Order that established standard licensing and service rules for DSRC and allocated 75 MHz of spectrum in the 5.9 GHz band. DSRC is to be used for the purpose of protecting the safety of the traveling public.

DSRC is a communications protocol developed to address the technical issues associated with sending and receiving data among vehicles, and between moving vehicles and fixed roadside access points. DSRC is a specialized form of WiFi and is a derivative of the basic IEEE 802.11 standard (a set of standards developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for implementing wireless local area network computer communications).

DSRC also includes the Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) Short Message protocol defined in the IEEE 1609 standard that allows terminals to broadcast messages to all other devices in radio range.

The typical range of a DSRC access point is about 300 meters, although ranges up to about 1 kilometer have been observed. Typical installations are expected to be at intersections and other roadside locations.

Slide 23: Key DSRC Functional Capabilities

  • DSRC is the only short-range wireless technology that provides:
    • Fast network acquisition, low-latency, high-reliability communications link
    • An ability to work with vehicles operating at high speeds
    • An ability to prioritize safety messages
    • Tolerance to multipath transmissions typical of roadway environments
    • Performance that is immune to extreme weather conditions (e.g., rain, fog, snow)
    • Protection of security and privacy of messages

Author Notes for Slide 23:

DSRC is also the only short-range wireless technology that provides a fast network acquisition, low-latency, high-reliability communications link; the ability to work with vehicles operating at high speeds; the ability to prioritize safety messages; tolerance to multipath transmissions typical of roadway environments; performance that is immune to extreme weather conditions (e.g., rain, fog, snow); and the protection of security and privacy of messages.

Slide 24: DSRC for Active Safety Applications

This figure illustrates how DSRC meets the latency requirements of various Connected Vehicle Active Safety applications in comparison to other communications technologies. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This figure illustrates how DSRC meets the latency requirements of various Connected Vehicle Active Safety applications in comparison to other communications technologies. The figure shows a bar graph comparing Communications Technologies (x axis) with Latency (in seconds) (y axis). In the bar graph, various communications technologies are indicated showing the range of latencies, including Cellular (1.5-3.5 secs), WiMax (1.5-3.5 secs), WiFi (3-5 secs), Bluetooth (3-4 secs), Terrestiral Digital Radio & Satellite Digital Audio Radio (10-20 secs) and Two-Way Satellite (60+ secs). It compares these to the Least stringent latency requirement for Active Safety (1 sec) and Most Stringent latency requirement for Active Safety (0.2 sec), and shows a dot with 5.9GHz DSRC at the bottom at .0002 secs. To the right of the graph is a table with the following data:

Active Safety Latency Requirements
Traffic Signal Violataion warning 0.1s
Curve Speed Warning 1s
Emergency Electronic Brake Lights 0.1s
Pre-Crash Sensing 0.02s
Cooperative Forward Collision Warning 0.1s
Left turn Assistant 0.1s
Lane Change Warning 0.1s
Stop Sign Movement Assistance 0.1s

Source: USDOT)

Author Notes for Slide 24:

This figure illustrates how DSRC meets the latency requirements of various Connected Vehicle Active Safety applications in comparison to other communications technologies.

Slide 25: Cellular Communications

  • USDOT committed to DSRC for active safety, but will explore other wireless technologies
  • Cellular communications is a candidate for some safety, mobility, and environmental applications
    • LTE technologies can provide high-speed data rates to a large number of users simultaneously
    • Technologies are intended to serve mobile users
    • Good coverage - all urban areas and most major highways

Author Notes for Slide 25:

Beyond the commitment to DSRC for active safety applications, USDOT has reaffirmed its intention to explore all wireless technologies for their applicability to other safety, mobility, and environmental applications. Cellular communications is a candidate for some safety applications, as well as mobility and environmental applications in the Connected Vehicle Environment. Cellular communications uses a series of base stations to provide voice and data communications services over relatively large areas.

The technologies are still evolving but the latest Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular technologies are able to provide very high speed data transfer rates to a large number of subscribers simultaneously.

Cellular communications systems are intended to serve mobile users, so they are designed to provide high data bandwidth to users in motion. They are also widely deployed so that users can access the service wherever they go. Generally, all urban areas generally have cellular coverage provided by multiple carriers. While not ubiquitous, most major highways also have coverage.

Slide 26: Security Credential Management

  • Connected Vehicle Environment relies on the ability to trust the validity of messages between users
    • Accidental or malicious issue of false messages could have severe consequences
  • Users also have expectation of appropriate privacy in the system
  • Current research indicates use of PKI security system and exchange of digital certificates

Author Notes for Slide 26:

For the Connected Vehicle system to work effectively, users of the network must be able to trust the validity of messages received from other system users. Establishing the basis of this trust network is a key element of a security design for the Connected Vehicle program. Accidental or malicious issue of false messages among vehicles or between vehicles and the infrastructure could have severe consequences, especially in safety-critical applications.

At the same time, users want to have a reasonable assurance of appropriate privacy in the system.

Research to date has indicated that use of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) security system, involving the exchange of digital certificates among trusted users, can support both the need for message security and for providing appropriate anonymity to users. Digital certificates are used to sign the messages that pass between vehicles in the Connected Vehicle Environment, and therefore allow the receiver of a message to verify that the message came from a legitimate source.

Slide 27: Policy and Institutional Issues

  • May limit successful deployment
  • Collaborative effort among USDOT, industry stakeholders, vehicle manufacturers, state and local governments, associations, and citizens
  • Policy issues and associated research fall into four categories:
    • Implementation Policy Options
    • Technical Policy Options
    • Legal Policy Options
    • Implementation Strategies

Author Notes for Slide 27:

Connected Vehicle policy and institutional issues are those topics that may limit or challenge successful deployment.

The vision for the Connected Vehicle program is one of a collaborative effort among USDOT, key industry stakeholders, vehicle manufacturers, state and local governments, representative associations, citizens, and others. Therefore, the policy and institutional foundation supporting the successful deployment of Connected Vehicle technologies and applications must respond to the collective needs of this group.

The four categories of policy issues are described on the following slides.

Slide 28: Implementation Policy Options

  • Topics to be addressed:
    • Viable options for financial and investment strategies
    • Analysis and comparisons of communications systems for data delivery
    • Model structures for governance with identified roles and responsibilities
    • Analyses required to support the NHTSA agency decision

Author Notes for Slide 28:

A series of key policy topics relating to the implementation of a Connected Vehicle system will need to be addressed. These include:

  • Analysis and development of a range of viable options for financial and investment strategies,
  • Analysis and comparisons of different communications systems for data delivery,
  • Development of model structures for governance with identified roles and responsibilities of the various participants, and
  • Analyses that are required to support NHTSA's 2013 and 2014 agency decisions, including a cost-benefit analysis, value proposition analysis, and market penetration analysis

Slide 29: Technical Policy Options

  • Analysis of technical choices for V2V and V2I technologies and applications
    • Identify if options require new institutional models or can leverage existing assets and personnel
  • Technical analyses related to Core System, system interfaces, and device certification and standards

Author Notes for Slide 29:

Analyses in this area will include assessment of the technical choices for V2V and V2I technologies and applications with the intent to identify whether those options require new institutional models or whether they can leverage existing assets and personnel.

The technical analyses in this category will also result in policies related to the Connected Vehicle Core System, a policy framework on necessary interfaces, and policies on the use of device certification and standards

Slide 30: Legal Policy Options

  • Analysis on the federal role and authority in system development and deployment
  • Analysis of liability and limitations to risk
  • Policy and practices regarding privacy
  • Policies on intellectual property and data ownership

Author Notes for Slide 30:

Analysis and policy options that support decisions on the federal role and authority in Connected Vehicle system development and deployment, liability and limitations to risk, policy and practices regarding privacy, and policies on intellectual property and data ownership within the Connected Vehicle Environment

Slide 31: Implementation Strategies

  • AASHTO conducted a Connected Vehicle Field Infrastructure Deployment Analysis
    • Infrastructure deployment decisions by state and local transportation agencies depend on nature and timing of benefits
    • Benefits depend on availability of Connected Vehicle equipment installed in vehicles
      • Original equipment
      • After-market devices

Author Notes for Slide 31:

In 2010-2011, AASHTO performed a Connected Vehicle Field Infrastructure Deployment Analysis to begin analyzing the potential approaches for deploying the infrastructure components of Connected Vehicle systems by state and local transportation agencies.

The analysis assumed that the infrastructure deployment decisions of state and local agencies would be based on the nature and timing of the benefits that will accrue to the agencies from Connected Vehicle system applications and, in turn, these benefits will depend on the availability of Connected Vehicle equipment installed in vehicles; either as original equipment installed by the manufacturer or through the availability of aftermarket, nomadic, or retrofit devices purchased by vehicle owners.

It may be difficult for public agencies to justify the investment in roadside infrastructure if there are few equipped vehicles that will interact with it and use the V2I applications deployed by the agencies. The situation is even more significant for V2V applications, which require two vehicles (of the small number equipped) to interact in, most likely, a crash-imminent situation.

Slide 32: Connected Vehicle Market Growth

This figure shows the Connected Vehicle Market Growth, comparing Percentage on the y axis with Years on the x axis. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This figure shows the Connected Vehicle Market Growth, comparing Percentage on the y axis with Years on the x axis. The figure shows lines indicating the Step Application Rate (a straight line at 100% across all years 1-25), Step Popluation Ratio (a curve that rises from less than 10% and peaks at 90% by approximately year 15), 10Yr Application Rate (a curve that rises from 0% and aproaches a peak of 100% by approximately year 17), 10Yr Population Ratio (a curve that rises more gently from 0% and aproaches a peak of approximately 85% by approximately year 23), V2V Probability (10Yr) (a curve that rises more gently from 0% and aproaches a peak of approximately 70% by approximately year 23), and V2V Probability (Step) (a curve that rises from 0% and peaks at approximately 83% by approximately year 13). For relevant and more detailed explanation of the purpose and intents of the figure, please see the Author Notes below.)

Source: USDOT

Author Notes for Slide 32:

This figure illustrates projections of future market growth for Connected Vehicle systems and the effect of this market growth on receiving benefits from V2V safety applications.

The figure shows the population ratio of connected vehicle equipment (i.e., the percentage of vehicles in the U.S. light vehicle fleet with the equipment) based on both a step function introduction (i.e., all new vehicles are built with the feature) and a more typical "S-curve" application rate in which the feature is introduced into the fleet over time. In the case of connected vehicles, a step function would occur if the NHTSA agency decision resulted in a mandate to install DSRC radios in all new light vehicles in the U.S.

The figure shows that a step function introduction would result in 90 percent of the entire U.S. light vehicle fleet being equipped within 13 years. In contrast, the more typical phased introduction takes an additional 20 years before 90 percent of the U.S. light vehicle fleet is equipped. This phased introduction reaches 50 percent of the U.S. light vehicle fleet in about 14 years.

This may be especially problematic for V2V safety applications. While individual equipped vehicles would receive immediate benefits from V2I applications, V2V benefits would only occur when both interacting vehicles are equipped. The figure also shows that the probability of obtaining benefits from V2V communications is less than 50 percent for more than 17 years after initial introduction of the feature. For a step function introduction of the feature, this point is reached at about 10 years.

Slide 33: Funding for Infrastructure Deployment

  • Key task facing state and local DOTs is the need to identify a funding mechanism.
    • Capital and ongoing operations and maintenance costs
  • Agencies can consider various funding categories to support deployment.
    • ITS budget or federal/state funds with ITS eligibility
    • Safety improvement program
    • Funds set aside for congestion mitigation or air quality improvement projects
    • Public-private partnerships

Author Notes for Slide 33:

Among the key tasks facing state and local DOTs that intend to deploy a Connected Vehicle infrastructure is the need to identify a funding mechanism for the capital and ongoing operations and maintenance costs. Various funding categories may be appropriate to support deployment.

  • Connected Vehicle systems are a form of ITS technology, so an agency might use an ITS budget or any category of federal or state funds for which ITS is eligible.
  • Connected Vehicle systems are expected to have significant effects on vehicle and highway safety, so deployment with funds intended for safety systems might be appropriate.
  • Mobility impacts of Connected Vehicle technologies and consequent emission reductions could warrant funding some deployments with funds set aside for congestion mitigation or air quality improvement projects.
  • Agencies may also explore public-private partnerships or asset- and revenue-sharing mechanisms to acquire the desired Connected Vehicle infrastructure.

There will be ongoing day-to-day operations costs (e.g., staffing, power and backhaul communications from Connected Vehicle field sites), maintenance costs (both scheduled and unscheduled), and the costs of replacement of field and back-office equipment at the end of its life.

Slide 34: Summary

  • The Connected Vehicle Environment:
    • Wireless connectivity among vehicles, infrastructure, and mobile devices
    • Transformative changes in highway safety, mobility, and environmental impact
    • Broad stakeholder base - government, industry, researchers
  • Potential benefits
    • Use of V2V and V2I may address 81% of unimpaired crashes in all vehicle types
    • Reduce congestion and vehicle emissions

Author Notes for Slide 34:

  • The Connected Vehicle Environment uses wireless connectivity among vehicles, the infrastructure, and mobile devices to bring about transformative changes in highway safety, mobility, and the environmental impacts of the transportation system.
  • The vision of a national multimodal Connected Vehicle Environment requires participation of a broad community of stakeholders: federal, state, and local transportation agencies; car, truck, and bus manufacturers; telecommunications providers and consumer electronics manufacturers; and researchers.
  • Benefits from the Connected Vehicle Environment are expected to accrue in a number of areas:
    • Combined use of V2V and V2I communications has the potential to address 81 percent of unimpaired driver crashes in all vehicle types;
    • Connected Vehicle systems have the potential to reduce urban traffic congestion and travel delays, and to reduce vehicle emissions and improve vehicle fuel efficiency.

Slide 35: Summary (cont'd)

  • Current strategic challenges - technical, benefits, deployment, public acceptance
  • Connected Vehicle Safety Pilot to support NHTSA agency decisions in 2013 and 2014
  • Applications allow systems and technologies to deliver services and benefits to users in three broad categories
    • Safety applications (including those based on V2V or V2I communications)
    • Dynamic mobility applications
    • Environmental applications

Author Notes for Slide 35:

Current strategic challenges in the Connected Vehicle program comprise:

  • To resolve remaining technical challenges;
  • To conduct testing to determine the actual benefits of applications;
  • To determine whether overall benefits are sufficient to warrant implementation, and, if so, how the systems would be implemented;
  • To address issues related to funding, and identifying who will deploy, operate, and maintain the roadside equipment and the Security Credential Management System; and
  • To address issues of public acceptance such as maintaining user privacy and whether systems in vehicles are secure, effective, safe, and easy to use.

The Connected Vehicle Safety Pilot is a scientific research initiative to collect the data needed to understand the safety benefits of these technologies. These data will be critical to supporting a 2013 NHTSA agency decision on the deployment of Connected Vehicle core technologies for light vehicles and a 2014 decision for heavy vehicles.

Applications are the most visible part of the Connected Vehicle Environment. Applications allow the Connected Vehicle systems and technologies to deliver services and benefits to users.

Connected Vehicle applications are typically divided into three broad categories, with each category comprising bundles of individual applications. The categories are:

  • Safety applications (including those based on V2V communications and those based on V2I communications);
  • Dynamic mobility applications; and
  • Environmental applications.

Slide 36: Summary (cont'd)

  • DSRC technologies developed specifically for vehicular communications
    • Reserved for transportation safety by the FCC
  • DSRC will be used for V2V and V2I active safety
    • Cellular communications can be explored for other safety, mobility, and environmental applications
  • A Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) security system, involving the exchange of digital certificates among trusted users, can support both the need for message security and provide appropriate anonymity to users.

Author Notes for Slide 36:

Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) technologies were developed specifically for vehicular communications and are reserved for transportation safety applications by the FCC.

USDOT is committed to the use of DSRC communications for active safety in both V2V and V2I applications.

Other media, such as cellular communications, are being explored for their applicability to other safety, mobility, and environmental applications.

The Connected Vehicle program will rely on secure communications—users of the system must be able to trust the validity of messages from other system users.

Current research indicates that the use of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) security system, involving the exchange of digital certificates among trusted users, can support both the need for message security and provide appropriate anonymity to users.

Slide 37: Summary (cont'd)

  • Policy and institutional issues are topics that may limit or challenge successful deployment.
  • An AASHTO Connected Vehicle field infrastructure deployment analysis indicates:
    • Infrastructure deployment decisions of state and local transportation agencies will be based on the nature and timing of benefits
    • Benefits will depend on the availability of Connected Vehicle equipment installed in vehicles, either as original equipment or as after-market devices.

Author Notes for Slide 37:

Connected Vehicle policy and institutional issues are topics that may limit or challenge successful deployment. Key principles for the Connected Vehicle Environment have been identified by USDOT to guide policy research. Policy issues that require research have been identified in four categories:

  • Implementation policy issues;
  • Technical policy issues;
  • Legal policy issues; and
  • Implementation strategies.

Work conducted by AASHTO through a Connected Vehicle Field Infrastructure Deployment Analysis indicates that the infrastructure deployment decisions of state and local transportation agencies will be based on the nature and timing of benefits that will accrue to the agencies. In turn, these benefits will depend on the availability of Connected Vehicle equipment installed in vehicles, either as original equipment or as after-market devices.

Slide 38: References

Slide 39: Questions?

  1. What types of benefits may accrue from the implementation of the Connected Vehicle Environment?
  2. What are the key inputs to the NHTSA agency decision to pursue a potential rulemaking?
  3. Why is DSRC suitable for Connected Vehicle applications, especially active safety applications?
  4. How will the Connected Vehicle Environment be protected against accidental or malicious attacks?
  5. What factors will influence the decisions by state and local agencies to deploy Connected Vehicle field infrastructure?

Author Notes for Slide 39:

  1. What types of benefits may accrue from the implementation of the Connected Vehicle Environment?
    Connected Vehicles are anticipated to bring about transformative changes in highway safety, mobility, and the environmental impacts of the transportation system. In particular, combined use of V2V and V2I communications has the potential to address 81 percent of unimpaired driver crashes in all vehicle types. Connected Vehicle systems also have the potential to reduce urban traffic congestion and travel delays, and to reduce vehicle emissions and improve vehicle fuel efficiency.
  2. What are the key inputs to the NHTSA agency decision to pursue a potential rulemaking?
    Central to the research that is currently being undertaken is a determination of the potential benefits of the Connected Vehicle system and the evaluation of driver acceptance of vehicle-based safety systems. This component of the research program will provide factual evidence needed to support a 2013 NHTSA agency decision on the deployment of core Connected Vehicle technologies for light vehicles and a similar 2014 decision for heavy vehicles. The Connected Vehicle Safety Pilot is a scientific research initiative to collect the data needed to understand the safety benefits of these technologies. These data will be critical to supporting the 2013 NHTSA agency decision.
  3. Why is DSRC suitable for Connected Vehicle applications, especially active safety applications?
    DSRC technologies were developed specifically for vehicular communications and are reserved for transportation safety applications by the FCC. DSRC is the communications medium of choice for active safety systems because of its designated licensed bandwidth. DSRC is also the only short-range wireless technology that provides a fast network acquisition, low-latency, high-reliability communications link; the ability to work with vehicles operating at high speeds; the ability to prioritize safety messages; tolerance to multipath transmissions typical of roadway environments; performance that is immune to extreme weather conditions (e.g., rain, fog, snow); and the protection of security and privacy of messages.
  4. How will the Connected Vehicle Environment be protected against accidental or malicious attacks?
    The Connected Vehicle program will rely on secure communications—users of the system must be able to trust the validity of messages from other system users. Current research indicates that the use of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) security system, involving the exchange of digital certificates among trusted users, can support the need for message security and provide appropriate anonymity to users.
  5. What factors will influence the decisions by state and local agencies to deploy Connected Vehicle field infrastructure?
    Work conducted by AASHTO indicates that the infrastructure deployment decisions of state and local transportation agencies will be based on the nature and timing of benefits that will accrue to the agencies. In turn, these benefits will depend on the availability of Connected Vehicle equipment installed in vehicles, either as original equipment or as after-market devices.

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For more information, contact:

Michelle Noch
ITS Professional Capacity Building Program Manager
ITS Joint Program Office
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology (OST-R)
U.S. Department of Transportation
202-366-0278
Michelle.Noch@dot.gov

 

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