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ITS ePrimer

Module 14: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges (Presentation)

(Note: The following PowerPoint presentation is a supplement to the module.)

Slide 1: ITS ePrimer Module 14: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges

Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) ePrimer

September 2013

Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office Research and Innovative Technology Administration, USDOT

Author Notes for Slide 1:

This is the first, title slide in all modules.

The following slides are in this order:

  • Instructor
  • Learning Objectives
  • Content-related slide(s)
  • Summary (what we have learned)
  • References
  • Questions?

This module is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation's ITS Professional Capacity Building (PCB) Program. The ITS PCB Program is part of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration's ITS Joint Program Office.

Thank you for participating and we hope you find this module helpful.

Slide 2: Instructors

Headshot photo of Eva Lerner-Lam, F. ITE, M.ASCE, President, Palisades Consulting Group, Tenafly, NJ, USA

Eva Lerner-Lam, F. ITE, M.ASCE
President
Palisades Consulting Group
Tenafly, NJ, USA

Headshot photo of Nathan E. Keyes, A.M.ASCE, Associate Researcher, Palisades Consulting Group, Tenafly, NJ, USA

Nathan E. Keyes, A.M.ASCE
Associate Researcher
Palisades Consulting Group
Tenafly, NJ, USA

Slide 3: Learning Objectives

  • Present an overview of a "strategic framework" for the "next generation" of ITS
  • Describe what drives emerging ITS applications
  • Identify some potentia l"game changers" and the opportunities and challenges they present

Slide 4: Purpose

  1. How does ITS fit into a society's efforts to achieve its vision and goals?
  2. What emerging ITS applications can help?
  3. What game changers can facilitate or threaten those applications?
  4. How can we learn more about emerging ITS applications?

Author Notes for Slide 4:

This module describes how ITS technologies fit into a society's efforts to achieve its overall vision and goals. It highlights some of the exciting new ITS applications that can help. Since technology evolves so rapidly, and is so influenced by disruptive forces—so-called "game changers"—we identify some of the current game changers and look beyond today and into the future...

Slide 5: Introduction

  • Previous Generation of ITS:
    • Developed a National System Architecture, standards and protocols
    • Focus was on INFRASTRUCTURE
  • Next Generation of ITS:
    • Consumer demand-driven
    • Rapid technology developments
    • Subject to disruptive "game changers"

Author Notes for Slide 5:

In the previous ITS generation, ITS professionals led efforts to create and define a National ITS System Architecture and built essential tools for integrating smart systems.

With ITS foundations now in place, and rapidly developing technologies transforming the way we live, there are many exciting opportunities and potential challenges ahead.

Slide 6: A Strategic Framework for ITS

  • Vision
  • Goals
  • Applications
  • Enabling Technologies
  • Financial, Legal, Regulatory, Security, and Insurance Regimes

Author Notes for Slide 6:

Understanding why ITS is important and how it is poised to achieve its goals are the first steps toward recognizing the opportunities and challenges before us.

Slide 7: Strategic Framework for ITS

This diagram demonstrates the strategic framework for ITS. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This diagram demonstrates the strategic framework for ITS. It is a series of horizontal text boxes, stacked vertically. The top box is labeled "Vision" and has an arrow pointing down to the next text box labeled "Goals." The "Goals" text box has an arrow pointing back up to "Vision" and also down to the third text box labeled "Applications." That text box has an arrow pointing back up to "Goals" and down to the fourth text box labeled "Enabling Technologies." That box points back up to "Applications" and down to the final text box labeled "Financial, Legal, Regulatory, Security and Insurance Regimes" which also has an arrow pointing back up to "Enabling Technologies.")

Author Notes for Slide 7:

This diagram illustrates how these crucial components fit together into a strategic framework for ITS. The Vision drives the Goals, which drive the Applications, which are powered by Enabling Technologies and undergirded by Financial Legal, Regulatory, Security, and Insurance Regimes. As the ITS evolves, lessons learned feed back to influence the other levels.

Slide 8: A Framework for the Next Generation of ITS

  • VISION: A prosperous, sustainable society, supported by a multi-modal, integrated, intelligent transportation system operating with optimal efficiency and effectiveness within a system of systems

Slide 9: The Role of ITS in Achieving Society's Vision and Goals

The Role of ITS in Achieving Vision and Goals of Society. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This figure is for general illustrative purposes only. Please also see the Author Notes below for additional relevant information for this slide. This diagram intends to demonstrate the role of ITS in achieving society’s vision and goals with a series of text boxes in a flowchart leading to a graphic illustration of a highway leading to a city, labeled "Society’s Vision and Goals" on the far right side (Lerner-Lam and Keyes). At the top right, there is a series of descriptive terms: "Constrained by: {bracket} safety, financial, environmental, technological, institutional, political, social equity and economic considerations {bracket}." Below this list is a series of three vertical text boxes (top to bottom): Infrastructure, Vehicles, Travelers. These three boxes are linked by a line that leads to the "Transportation" text box in the middle series of text boxes, which include (top to bottom): Water, Agriculture, Power, Transportation, Education, … . These six boxes are all linked with lines to the illustrative icon of the highway leading to a city as described above.)

Author Notes for Slide 9:

As illustrated here, optimizing transportation systems to help achieve society's overall objectives of economic health and welfare depends on not only clearly defining those objectives, but also identifying and articulating the constraints within which actions can be taken. These constraints include safety, financial, environmental, technological, institutional, political, social equity, and economic considerations, and these must each be considered, weighted, and balanced. Thus, a transportation system that carries travelers safely, efficiently and effectively to and from their desired destinations, within those constraints, can contribute to a society's productivity and overall health, and fit well into a family of other systems necessary for a society to function well as a whole.

Slide 10: A Framework for the Next Generation of ITS

  • GOAL: Make vehicles, infrastructure, and travelers smarter to improve mobility and safety, save energy, and reduce society's carbon footprint.

Author Notes for Slide 10:

Transportation systems are operating systems intended to help meet a society' s objectives.

They consist of three major components: Infrastructure, Vehicles, and people who are Travelers.

Optimizing transportation systems so that they meet society's objectives within the circumstances that constrain these three components is what transportation planning and engineering is all about!

Slide 11: A Framework for the Next Generation of ITS

  • Applications: Using Technology to Achieve Our Goals
    • Infrastructure Applications
    • Vehicle Applications
    • Traveler Applications

Author Notes for Slide 11:

The next component of the ITS Strategic Framework is ITS applications. ITS applications are the tools we can use to achieve our Goals and Vision. They leverage the power of enabling technologies such as mobile ad-hoc wireless network communications, smartphones, high-speed computing, and data storage, and help us to improve safety, save energy, and reduce our carbon footprint.

We find ITS technologies on roadways and transit systems, onboard vehicles, and carried on handheld smartphones by travelers.

Slide 12: The Emerging Role of the Entrepreneur as a Key Partner in the Development of ITS Applications

This image shows the emerging role of the entrepreneur as a key partner in the development of ITS applications. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This image shows the emerging role of the entrepreneur as a key partner in the development of ITS applications, and has the following series of words dispersed in various directions, sizes, fonts and colors: Telecommunications, Navigation, Entrepreneurs, Technologies, Social Benefit, Safety, Mobility, Game-Changing, Partnership, Return on Investment, Insurance, and Crowdsourcing.)

(Lerner-Lam)

Author Notes for Slide 12:

  • The private sector has always played a major role in developing ITS applications.
  • Recent, rapidly advancing technological innovations have spawned legions of (mostly young) entrepreneurs.
  • They create startup companies, target specific markets, and develop applications that leverage enabling technologies to meet the demands of those markets.
  • Venture capital and experienced leadership on the public sector side spawn innovative public-private partnerships benefiting not only individual travelers and transportation businesses, but operators of public roadways and public transit systems as well.

Slide 13: A Framework for the Next Generation of ITS

  • Enabling Technologies: The Engines That Drive ITS Applications

Smartphones and crowdsourcing have made infrastructure-sourced traffic information obsolete.

This figure is for general illustrative purposes only. Please also see the Author Notes below for additional relevant information for this slide. This image shows a series of overlapping smart phones with various crowd-sourcing applications on the screen, with menu options, time and distance estimations, maps, and so forth.

Source: Waze Inc 2013

This image is a sample screen shot from the MTA App Quest program.. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This figure is for general illustrative purposes only. Please also see the Author Notes below for additional relevant information for this slide. This image is a sample screen shot from the MTA App Quest program. It has the MTA logo, AT&T logo and words "App Quest." Underneath is a user interface with menu tabs and a large text area with the words "Change the way 8.5 million people commute every day – create the transit app of the future." There is a monochromatic image of people in a transit center (like a railroad station) under a sign listing departures/arrivals.)

Free data interface standard from Google® makes real-time transit data available to app developers.

Source: Copyright Metropolitan Transportation Authority (used with permission)

Author Notes for Slide 13:

The Enabling Technologies level within the Framework for ITS has the greatest potential for "game changers." A sudden, disruptive event, discovery, or innovation at the Enabling Technologies level can have major consequences-positive or catastrophic--on the ITS applications they drive, which can, in turn, impact progress toward society's Vision and Goals.

Examples:

  • In highways, crowdsourcing apps such as Waze® transformed traffic information from something government was trying to provide through major investments in Infrastructure to something that Travelers could get for themselves through smartphones.
  • In transit, Google® provided an open-source, transit data feed interface that enabled transit agencies to distribute--at no charge—raw schedule and real-time information to qualified app developers to satisfy consumer demand using innovative, entrepreneurial concept development and implementation.

Slide 14: A Framework for the Next Generation of ITS

Financial, Legal, Regulatory, Security, and Insurance Regimes

Author Notes for Slide 14:

Concurrent with the development and implementation of the next generation of ITS must be corresponding development and implementation of financial, legal, regulatory, security, and insurance regimes.

Slide 15: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges: Potential Game Changers

  1. DSRC decisions by NHTSA in 2013 and 2014
  2. Smart devices as probes and drones in the future connected transportation system
  3. Location-Based Social Networking (LBSN)
  4. Spectrum scarcity and future communications technologies (e.g., 5G, etc.)
  5. Cloud Computing

Author Notes for Slide 15:

So, what are some of the disruptive "game changers" that have the potential to catapult some big ideas into reality--or sink some current, significant ITS initiatives?

Here's a list of some that transportation professionals are watching closely...

  1. DSRC decisions by NHTSA in 2013 and 2014
  2. Smart devices as probes and drones in the future connected transportation system
  3. Location-Based Social Networking (LBSN)
  4. Spectrum scarcity and future communications technologies
  5. Cloud Computing

Slide 16: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges: Potential Game Changers

  1. Smart Driving Cars
  2. High Market Penetration of Smart Devices with GPS
  3. VMT-based User Fees for Transportation Facilities
  4. Pay How You Drive (PHYD) Insurance Policies
  5. Cyber Vulnerabilities

Author Notes for Slide 16:

  1. Smart Driving Cars
  2. High Market Penetration of Smart Devices with GPS
  3. VMT-based User Fees for Transportation Facilities
  4. Pay How You Drive (PHYD) Insurance Policies
  5. Cyber Vulnerabilities

We'll cover each of these in the next several slides.

Slide 17: 1. NHTSA's DSRC Decisions in 2013 and 2014

This photograph shows vehicles driving on a barrier-divided urban highway (buildings and overpass in the background). There are a series of yellow concentric circles overlaid around the vehicles closest to the camera view of the photograph.

Why is this a game changer?

Author Notes for Slide 17:

Why are NHTSA's DSRC decisions potential game changers?

DSRC/WAVE is a fundamental, enabling technology. A "Yes" decision would establish DSRC/WAVE as the standard communications platform for wirelessly connecting Vehicles, Infrastructure, and Travelers' devices for transportation purposes and would expedite the development and implementation of ITS applications. A "No" or deferred decision would be a major setback to existing initiatives, significantly raising the risk of the ITS community moving forward toward achieving the ITS vision.

Source: http://www.volpe.dot.gov/coi/att/images/safety-pilot.jpg

Slide 18: 1. NHTSA's DSRC Decisions in 2013 and 2014

This is a repeat of the photograph on Slide 17.

What are the Opportunities and Challenges?

Author Notes for Slide 18:

What are the Opportunities?

A decision by NHTSA to mandate the use of DSRC/WAVE in all new vehicles would significantly lower the risk in moving forward with the development and implementation of next generation ITS applications.

What are the Challenges?

It will take years to equip vehicles with DSRC/WAVE components, and every vehicle needs to have one in order for collision avoidance to work. Other technologies, such as onboard, machine vision cameras and radar, may make DSRC/WAVE mandates and technologies obsolete.

Source: http://www.volpe.dot.gov/coi/att/images/safety-pilot.jpg

Slide 19: 2. Smart Devices as Probes and Drones

This image shows an example of smart devices as probes and drones. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This is a graphical illustration of an urban elevated highway, curving around a residential area with trees, houses and curving roads, and with city buildings on the far side of the elevated highway. There are three faint concentric circles coming from the point of the greatest curve in the highway (in the center of the image) and coming across the middle of the residential area, and another near the edges of the illustration.)

Why are smart devices as probes and drones potential game changers?

Author Notes for Slide 19:

Why are smart devices as probes and drones potential game changers?

For many ITS applications, especially traffic management, fleet dispatching, and traveler information applications, collecting traffic information (congestion, queue lengths at signalized intersections, special event traffic management, disaster recovery, etc.) is essential—and expensive. In the past, obtaining this information required heavy investments in roadside infrastructure, including equipment such as embedded loop detectors and video surveillance poles and electrical wiring installations. Smart devices with global positioning systems may now be able to provide this information much less expensively, and with greater coverage and accuracy throughout the transportation system.

Source: http://www.its.dot.gov/library/media/1probe.htm © Research and Innovative Technology Administration

Slide 20: 2. Smart Devices as Probes and Drones

This is a repeat of the image on slide 19.

What are the Opportunities and Challenges?

Author Notes for Slide 20:

Opportunity

If probe data from smart devices on Vehicles and carried by Travelers are used by operators of transportation Infrastructure to better manage transportation capacity and operations, fewer investments in costly roadside infrastructure will be necessary.

Challenges

  1. Technical. When will there be sufficient market penetration of mobile smart devices? How can probe data from those devices be sourced, stored, processed, and disseminated?
  2. Institutional. Who owns and maintains the data and information they are acquired?
  3. Legal. Who is liable if the data or information are determined to be faulty?
  4. Privacy. How can the privacy of the individuals and/or institutions providing the probe data be protected?

Source: http://www.its.dot.gov/library/media/1probe.htm © Research and Innovative Technology Administration

Slide 21: 3. Location-based Social Networking (LBSN)

Why is Location-based Social Networking a potential game changer?

Author Notes for Slide 21:

Why is Location-Based Social Networking a potential game changer?

The emergence of the social networking concept of "crowdsourcing" has the potential to provide the ITS community with massive amounts of data and information about road conditions and travel patterns. By tapping into existing, hardwired repositories of transportation information and adding the hundreds of millions of GPS-equipped devices that are and will be moving throughout the nation's transportation networks, these "location-based social networks" or "LBSNs" could become a primary means of collecting real-time traffic information for applications developers and managers of transportation systems across the continent.

Slide 22: 3. Location-based Social Networking (LBSN)

What are the Opportunities and Challenges Presented by Location-based Social Networking?

Author Notes for Slide 22:

Opportunities

Crowdsourced, LBSN-based transportation data and information could help to create national repositories of transportation data and information that could be used by consumers and providers of app services.

Challenges

  1. Recruiting participants to voluntarily contribute information to repositories of transportation data and information may be difficult, resulting in incomplete or biased datasets.
  2. Quality Assurance and Quality Control of LBSN-based data may be difficult to manage and maintain.

Slide 23: 4. Spectrum Scarcity and Future Communications Technologies

DESCRIPTION. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: The following descriptive notes are from the author. Please also see the Author Notes below for additional relevant information for this slide. This figure is for general illustrative purposes only. This image is entitled "United States Frequency Allocations / The Radio Spectrum." There is a color-coded key under the title. To the right of the image are a series of rows with an extremely complicated pattern of color-coded boxes, strips and blocks with text labels. This image is meant to convey the idea that the availability of frequency spectrum is very limited, with large and small allocations of spectrum already taking up most of what frequency is available.)

Why is Spectrum Scarcity a potential game changer?

Author Notes for Slide 23:

Why are Spectrum Scarcity and Future Communications technologies (e.g., 5G, etc.) potential game changers?

As cellular, satellite, and other wireless communications technologies continue to advance and as market forces continue to drive up the demand for more and better communications services, there will be continuing efforts to acquire access to frequency spectra to enable the transmission of all that information. Since spectra are limited, and since the performance of existing uses can be affected by influences from adjacent uses, future decisions by the Federal Communications Commission allocating spectra to new applicants can have a disruptive effect on existing users. At the same time, advances in communications technologies such as 5G will help to ease the demand for spectra. Transitioning between those incremental advances will challenge the advancement of ITS applications.

Source:

http://www.ntia.doc.gov/files/ntia/publications/spectrum_wall_chart_aug2011.pdf

Slide 24: 4. Spectrum Scarcity and Future Communications Technologies

This image is a repeat of the image in slide 23.

What are the Opportunities and Challenges of Spectrum Scarcity?

Author Notes for Slide 24:

Opportunities

Scarcity of resources can be an inspiration for finding more creative approaches to accomplishing the same mission or objectives more efficiently and effectively, resulting in positive, long-term benefits to society.

Challenges

Applications to the Federal Communications Commission for access to spectra that may be disruptive to existing services, intentionally or unintentionally, will continue to be made, and the ITS community must be prepared to spend time and resources defending and protecting the existing 5.9 GHz spectrum allocated by the FCC for ITS use, as well as other related spectra, such as the GPS band.

Advances in communications technologies such as 5G will help to ease the demand for spectra. However, transitioning between those incremental advances will challenge the advancement of ITS applications.

Source:

http://www.ntia.doc.gov/files/ntia/publications/spectrum wall chart aug2011.pdf

Slide 25: 5. Cloud Computing

Cloud computing illustration. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This image has a large cloud shaped outline with icons of smart phones, laptops, servers, desktops and tablets around the outside of the cloud outline, and the words "Cloud Computing" at the bottom. Inside the cloud outline are the words "Application" with icons of monitoring, content, collaboration, communication, and finance; "Platform" with icons of object storage, identity, runtime, queue, and database; and "Infrastructure" with icons compute, block storage, and network.)

(Illustration by Sam Johnston)

Why is Cloud Computing a potential game changer?

Author Notes for Slide 25:

Why is Cloud Computing a potential game changer?

Cloud computing is rapidly emerging as a game changer because it significantly reduces the cost of computing infrastructure investment and enables the rapid development of ITS applications.

However, the fate of cloud computing is still undecided. There is still a high degree of skepticism among information technology professionals regarding the security of the data and software, and if the paradigm fails, even just for transportation applications, the cost of implementing the next generation of ITS will increase significantly.

Source:

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b5/Cloud_computing.svg

Slide 26: 5. Cloud Computing

This image is a repeat of the image on Slide 25.

(Illustration by Sam Johnston)

What are the Opportunities and Challenges posed by Cloud Computing?

Author Notes for Slide 26:

Opportunity

Reducing the cost of computing infrastructure investment will speed the development of ITS applications and help to achieve the ITS vision of a safer, more sustainable society.

Challenges

  1. The cloud computing industry has yet to prove that it can protect the integrity and security of users' data.
  2. If cloud computing cannot overcome the obstacles to becoming a comprehensive, robust, and secure computing paradigm, the next generation of ITS will become much more expensive to implement.

Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b5/Cloud computing.svg

Slide 27: 6. Smart Driving Cars

Why are Smart Driving Vehicles a potential game changer?

Author Notes for Slide 27:

Why are Smart Driving Vehicles a potential game changer?

Self-driving cars running on streets and highways that are communicating with other Vehicles and infrastructure are one thing; those that are traveling autonomously, without communicating with other Vehicles and Infrastructure are another.

Slide 28: 6. Smart Driving Cars

What are the Opportunities and Challenges of Smart Driving Vehicles?

Author Notes for Slide 28:

Opportunities

Self-driving cars would offer independence and mobility to underserved sectors of the population, including the elderly, disabled, and young people. They would change trip generation rates and parking space requirements at origins and destinations.

They could act as traffic probes and enhance the quality of traffic information for other ITS applications.

Data and information collected by self-driving cars about the physical condition of infrastructure (bridges, tunnels, pavement, etc.) would be very valuable to authorities responsible for maintaining and operating those facilities.

Challenges

The primary challenges to successful adoption of the use of self-driving cars are technological and legal.

Slide 29: 7. High Market Penetration of Smart Devices with GPS

This is a pie chart depicting Active Smart Devices. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This is a pie chart depicting "Active Smart Devices – January 2013 (millions)" with the following values: United States, 222; China, 221; United Kingdom, 43; South Korea, 30; Japan, 29; Germany, 27; Canada, 23; France, 23; Brazil, 19; India, 19; Russia, 19; Spain, 18.)

Why are Smart Devices with GPS game changers?

Author Notes for Slide 29:

Why is this a potential game changer?

There are now more than 220 million activated iOS and Android smart devices in the United States, about one smart device for every adult in the nation. Furthermore, smartphone activations are projected to grow by 110% between 2012 and 2017 and tablet activations are projected to grow by 174% by 2017.

Figure Data Source: Image was re-created. Original source of data: http://trends.e-strategyblog.com/2013/02/20/global-smart-device-market-penetration-by-country/8572

Slide 30: 7. High Market Penetration of Smart Devices with GPS

This is a repeat of the pie chart on Slide 29.

What are the Opportunities and Challenges of Smart Devices with GPS?

Author Notes for Slide 30:

Opportunities

There will be enormous amounts of location-based data available to be collected, processed, analyzed, stored, accessed, and used by providers and users of transportation Infrastructure and Vehicles.

Location-Based Social Networking will provide valuable information to provide and enhance real-time traffic conditions for Travelers.

By tapping into LBSNs, public transportation agencies may be able to become users, rather than providers, of transportation data and information.

Challenges

Are we ready to take on the challenge of collecting, processing, analyzing, storing, accessing, and using all that data?

How will privacy concerns about personal travel patterns and behaviors be addressed?

Figure Data Source: Image was re-created. Original source of data: http://trends.e-strategyblog.com/2013/02/20/global-smart-device-market-penetration-by-country/8572

Slide 31: 8. VMT-based User Fees for Transportation Facilities

This is a series of three illustrations to depict VMT-based User Fees for Transportation Facilities. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This is a series of three illustrations to depict VMT-based User Fees for Transportation Facilities. At the left, the illustration is titled "GPS-based mileage fee system" with the image of a GPS satellite with a white dotted line pointing to it from an SUV below it. There is another white dotted arrow ("Cellular transmission") pointing to a building ("Central office"). There is curved black arrow pointing from the building to an icon of an envelope with a letter inside ("Invoice sent to driver). The text underneath reads: An on-board GPS receiver determines vehicle location and, depending on functionality, transmits either (1) a summary of fees incurred by jurisdiction of (2) specific vehicle coordinates. The central office then prepares and send a bill to the driver. The middle image is titled "Pay-at-the-pump fee system" and has an SUV at a fuel pump with a white dotted line ("Wireless connection" pointing between the SUV and the pump. There is another white dotted line ("Internet connection) pointing to a building ("Central office"). There is a black curved arrow point to a piece of paper ("Receipt for fuel and mileage fees issued at fuel pump"). The text underneath reads: No GPS receiver is required. Vehicles and fuel pumps are equipped with wireless transponders to communicate odometer mileage to a central office, which determines mileage fee and charges the driver in the cost of fuel purchased. At the right, there is an image titled "Prepaid manual mileage fee system" with an image of a gas station ("Driver purchases mileage license") with a black curved arrow pointing to the SUV. There is a zoom in to the SUV’s windshield, showing a sticker in the lower corner ("Affixes to windshield"). The text underneath reads: Driver purchases prepaid number of miles from a registered location and displays paper license with permitted mileage on vehicle windshield. No information on the location of the vehicle’s mileage driven is collected.)

Why are VMT-based User Fees for Transportation Facilities a potential game changer?

Author Notes for Slide 31:

Why are VMT-based User Fees for Transportation Facilities a potential game changer?

The next generation of ITS is deriving much of its momentum in the public realm based primarily on the safety aspects of a connected transportation system. If the same technologies being installed on vehicles will also enable Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT)-based user fee revenue collection, there could be pushback from the general public, and progress toward achieving safety improvement goals may be impacted.

Source: Government Accountability Office

Slide 32: 8. VMT-based User Fees for Transportation Facilities

This is a repeat of the images on Slide 31.

What are the Opportunities and Challenges of VMT-based User Fees?

Author Notes for Slide 32:

Opportunities

  1. A new means of revenue generation for transportation facilities and services. Having the technologies onboard vehicles that would enable VMT-based revenue collection of user fees for transportation facilities would help pay for transportation facilities and services.
  2. A VMT-based fee would encourage shorter trips and conservation of fuel by drivers.

Challenges

  1. Public policy and social equity. Who pays, and how much?
  2. Privacy protections. What assurances can be made that the information collected for payment of VMT-based user fees will be privacy-protected?

Source: Government Accountability Office

Slide 33: 9. Pay How You Drive (PHYD) Insurance Policies

This is a bar graph of Projected Global Usage-Based Insurance Subscribers. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This is a bar graph of Projected Global Usage-Based Insurance Subscribers. Relevant notes from the author: This figure is intended to just show the general trends and illustrate the general relationships. The x-axis shows years and the y-axis shows number of subscribers in millions. The following values are estimates. This graph is simply an illustration of the expected 81% compound annual growth in subscriptions from 5.5 million in 2013 to 107 million in 2018. As such, the numbers are much less important than the general exponential-growth trend. Data points: 2013 - 5.5; 2014 - 10; 2015-18; 2016 - 33; 2017 - 59; 2018 - 107.)

Why is this a potential game changer?

Author Notes for Slide 33:

Why is this a potential game changer?

There are several major PHYD efforts under way by large automobile insurance companies. As these systems become more popular, older vehicles not equipped with DSRC tags will begin to be equipped with devices that will collect data and information about distances traveled and driving behaviors. This will increase the market penetration of electronic devices on vehicles and, if integrated with other ITS applications, would improve the robustness and comprehensiveness of devices-as-probes for traffic monitoring and revenue collection purposes and improve the safety and energy-efficiency of drivers.

Source: Figure re-created by authors. Original source created by A.T. Kearney; James Abundis/Globe Staff

Slide 34: 9. Pay How You Drive (PHYD) Insurance Policies

This is a repeat of the bar graph on Slide 33.

What are the Opportunities and Challenges for PHYD Applications?

Author Notes for Slide 34:

Opportunities

  1. By equipping vehicles with telematic devices, drivers will have a stronger incentive to adopt safer and more energy-efficient driving practices.
  2. It may be possible to charge an annual transportation user fee based on VMT, as reported by insurance companies. This fee might be discounted from the rates for non-insurance-company-reported VMT, as an incentive for automobile owners to participate in the fee payment program.

Challenge

Protection of privacy. How can automobile owners be assured that their right to privacy won't be violated if electronic devices placed in their private automobiles are monitoring distances and time of day traveled, as well as their driving behaviors?

Source: Figure re-created by authors. Original source created by A.T. Kearney; James Abundis/Globe Staff

Slide 35: 10. Cyber Vulnerabilities

This diagram demonstrates how data generators, servers and users are increasingly networked together in a cloud of electronic connections. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: The following descriptive notes are from the author. Please also see the Author Notes below for additional relevant information for this slide. This figure is for general illustrative purposes only. This diagram demonstrates how data generators, servers and users are increasingly networked together in a "cloud" of electronic connections, so that if there is a breach in security in any part of the cloud, the entire network can be significantly affected.)

Source: https://ics-cert.us-cert.gov/sites/default/files/transimages/figure1.jpg

Why are Cyber Vulnerabilities a potential game changer?

Author Notes for Slide 35:

Why is this a potential game changer?

The next generation of ITS is being built on the premise that Vehicles, Infrastructure, and Travelers should be "connected" and communicating with each other. Cyber vulnerabilities, including the rapidly emerging commercialization of software vulnerabilities, are serious threats to the safety and security of our future transportation system.

Slide 36: 10. Cyber Vulnerabilities

This is a repeat of the diagram on Slide 35.

Source: https://ics-cert.us-cert.gov/sites/default/files/transimages/figure1.jpg

What are the Opportunities and Challenges of Cyber Vulnerabilities?

Author Notes for Slide 36:

Opportunities

  1. ITS cyber security systems may be integrated with or migrated from existing sophisticated cyber security technologies and systems.
  2. There may be potential for tight integration with other cyber security system to identify cyber attacks and security holes in order to react collaboratively and systematically to enhance public cyber security.

Challenges

  1. Operating ITS in a manner that defends against hacking and cyber attacks will require significant efforts and investment by the entire ITS community.
  2. Public distrust of the ITS community's ability to operate ITS in a safe and secure manner, let alone protect the privacy of users, may hinder popular support (and funding) for future ITS implementations.

Slide 37: Summary

  • The next generation of ITS builds on the foundations and tools established by the previous generation of ITS.
  • It will be driven by Vision and Goals, enabled by Emerging Technologies, undergirded by Insurance, Regulatory, and other Regimes, and demanded by an ever-growing population of Travelers seeking smarter ways to increase mobility.

Author Notes for Slide 37:

In Summary:

  • The foundation for the next generation of ITS was built in the previous generation of ITS.
  • There is a strategic framework for the next generation.

Slide 38: Summary (cont'd)

  • Along the way, there will undoubtedly be sudden, unexpected events ("black swans") that will create both opportunities and challenges for a broad community of transportation professionals in the public and private sectors
  • Anticipating these events, and staying nimble and willing to learn and adapt, will help the transportation professional stay ahead in this rapidly developing field.

Author Notes for Slide 38:

  • Disruptive, "black swan" events are to be expected, creating both opportunities and challenges.
  • The transportation professional must anticipate such events, stay nimble, and be willing to learn and adapt in order to stay ahead!

Slide 39: References

Federal:

State:

Slide 40: References (cont'd)

Industry:

Slide 41: References (cont'd)

Academia

Slide 42: References (cont'd)

Professional Associations:

Slide 43: References (cont'd)

Media:

Slide 44: Review Questions

  1. What role can the next generation of ITS play in helping society to achieve its Vision and Goals?
  2. What emerging developments may change the direction of current ITS policies and investments?
  3. What sector is playing a much larger role in the next generation of ITS than it did in the previous generation?
  4. How can a transportation professional stay up to date with rapidly evolving developments in ITS?

Author Notes for Slide 44:

  1. The next generation of ITS can deliver the technologies for using data and information in intelligent ways to make transportation work in an integrated, coherent way with other intelligent systems that form the fundamental systems that support a society and its Vision and Goals.
  2. Current emerging developments that may change the direction of current ITS policies and investments include:
    • DSRC decisions by NHTSA in 2013 and 2014
    • Smart devices as probes and drones in the future connected transportation system
    • Location-Based Social Networking (LBSN)
    • Spectrum Scarcity
    • Cloud Computing
    • Smart Driving Cars
    • High Market Penetration of Smart Devices with GPS
    • VMT-Based User Fees for Transportation Facilities
    • Pay How You Drive (PHYD) Insurance Policies
    • Cyber Vulnerabilities
  3. The Entrepreneurial sector is playing a much larger role in the next generation of ITS than it did in the previous generation.
  4. Frequently check the Web sites listed in this Module, and try to participate in important conferences, workshops, and meetings on ITS, Connected Vehicles, Autonomous Vehicles, and Smart Driving Cars.

Back to top

For more information, contact:

Michelle Noch
ITS Professional Capacity Building Program Manager
ITS Joint Program Office
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology (OST-R)
U.S. Department of Transportation
202-366-0278
Michelle.Noch@dot.gov

 

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