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ITS ePrimer Presentation

Module 15: Port Operations
(May 2, 2019)

Presenter: Theodore Smith
Presenter’s Org: WSP USA
Presenter: Tom Ward
Presenter’s Org: WSP USA
Presenter: Bethann Rooney
Presenter’s Org: The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
Presenter: Mark Thorsen
Presenter’s Org: The Virginia Port Authority
Presenter: Mark Higgins
Presenter’s Org: Port of Virginia

HTML version of the presentation
Image descriptions are contained in brackets. [ ]

All the slides in this presentation contain a top bar with the American Association of Port Authorities (AAPA) logo and the U.S. DOT Maritime Administration & Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office logo and a bottom bar with the WSP logo.

Slide 1: Intelligent Transportation Systems Applications for Ports

May 2, 2019

[This slide contains four images: (1) a computer-generated image of a train and a car at an intersection, marked with connecting yellow beams to illustrate the concepts of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications; (2) a photo of a terminal freight yard; (3) a computer-generated image of a truck stop; and (4) a computer-generated image of a train rail parallel to a highway, with all vehicles and some signals marked with connecting yellow beams to illustrate the concepts of V2V and V2I communications.]

Slide 2: ITS Professional Capacity Building Program

Michelle Noch, ITS Joint Program Office, U.S. Department of Transportation

[This slide contains a collage of images: the cover of the ITS Strategic Plan 2015-2019, images of vehicles demonstrating connectivity, and a Free ITS Training banner.]

Slide 3: ITS PCB Program Background

Part of USDOT ITS Joint Program Office (JPO)

  • 1996: Authorized by Congress
  • 2010: Reauthorized by MAP-21
  • 2016: Reaffirmed by FAST Act

The ITS PCB Program supports a variety of ITS learning opportunities to accelerate ITS deployments and encourage more efficient operations.

Slide 4: Program Strategy

  • Vision: Prepare a dynamically knowledgeable community of transportation industry professionals for a connected automated transportation system
  • Mission: Provide a multimodal and multi-disciplinary capacity building program for all levels of current and future transportation professionals to accelerate preparation for and the deployment of innovative ITS

Slide 5: ITS PCB Program - Portfolio of Products

ITS PCB Program:

  • Webinars
  • Workshops
  • Online Training Modules
  • Technical Assistance
  • Classroom/Courses
  • Guidance and Educational Materials
  • Academic Support

[This slide contains a graphic of seven circles around a central circle. The central circle is labeled “ITS PCB Program.” All the circles are listed above.]

Slide 6: ITS ePrimer

[This slide contains a screenshot of the ePrimer webpage on the ITS PCB Program website. The “Resources for Practitioners” tab is circled.]

Slide 7: ITS ePrimer

Module 1
Introduction to ITS
Module 8
Electronic Toll Collection and Pricing
Module 2
Systems Engineering
Module 9
Supporting ITS Technologies
Module 3
Transportation Management Systems
Module 10
Rural and Regional ITS Applications
Module 4
Traffic Operations
Module 11
Sustainable Transportation
Module 5
Personal Transportation
Module 12
Institutional Issues
Module 6
Freight, Intermodal, and CVO
Module 13
Connected Vehicles
Module 7
Public Transportation
Module 14
Emerging Issues

[This slide contains a screenshot of the ePrimer webpage on the ITS PCB website which contains a table of the ePrimer modules. The table is reproduced above.]

Slide 8: U.S. Maritime Administration

  • MARAD seeks to increase cargo capacity and reliability of freight moving through ports
  • Challenges & Issues
    • Marine terminal congestion is an ongoing challenge in the U.S.
    • Economic growth driving cargo volume growth
    • Exacerbated by larger container ships, infrastructure improvements - channel deepening, air draft clearance projects, Panama Canal expansion
    • Complexity of multi-modal port operations
  • Maritime Administration Strategic Plan (2017-2021)…Strategic Goal #5: Maritime Innovation
  • ITS MARAD Truck Staging Study (joint project with ITS JPO, FHWA, and FMSCA) - Webinar available at by June 2019

[This slide contains the logo of the U.S. Maritime Administration.]

Slide 9: American Association of Port Authorities

  • The unified voice of the seaport industry in the Americas, representing more than 130 public port authorities in the U.S., Canada, the Caribbean and Latin America.
  • AAPA events, resources and partnerships
    • connect, inform and unify seaport leaders and maritime professionals
    • promotes the common interests of the port community
    • provides advocacy and effective public outreach to influence seaports’ most urgent public policy issues
    • Information Technology Committee
      The AAPA Information Technology Committee focuses on electronic data interchange, management information systems and other automation initiatives. The Committee is open to all members of the Association, including corporate (port) members and sustaining (port industry solution providers) members.
    • Information Technology Awards Program
      The AAPA Information Technology Awards highlight port technology accomplishments in the areas of “Port Operations and Management Systems’ and “Improvements in Intermodal Freight Transportation.” Participation is open to all corporate members of the association.

[This slide contains the logo of the American Association of Port Authorities.]

Slide 10: Needed Port Investments - ITS Opportunities

What’s at risk without adequate infrastructure?

$66 Billion Investment Needed For Port Infrastructure - 44% Could Include ITS Solutions

  • $4 trillion
    potential GDP loss by 2025
  • $575 billion
    cost to American businesses and households by 2025
  • $14 billion
    added cost of traded products due to shallow harbors by 2040
  • $3,400
    loss per household by 2025
  • $155 billion
    amount ports and their private sector partners will invest between 2016 and 2020

Details from the pie chart:

  • $33.8 B Waterside Projects
  • $32.03 B Landside Projects
  • $28.9 B
    Build vital road and rail connectors to ports
  • $27.6 B
    Fully maintain deep-draft navigation channels
  • $8.2 B
    Modernize deep-draft navigation channels
  • $3.13 B
    Improve port facility infrastructure

[This slide contains a pie chart. The pie chart details are reproduced above.]

Slide 11: Port Planning & Investment Toolkit (PPIT)

  • Led by:
    • AAPA
    • MARAD
    • 64 Port Staff, PPM Candidates, Consultants
  • Goal is to assist Ports:
    • Develop capital plans that clearly identify future needs;
    • Determine the most cost-effective, sustainable and efficient solutions to port challenges;
    • Position port projects for federal funding such as BUILD, INFRA and MPO grants;
    • Get port infrastructure projects into MPO and state transportation programs to qualify for other government funding; and
    • Obtain private sector funding to support their infrastructure projects.

[This slide contains a photo of the Port Planning and Investment Toolkit document.]

Slide 12: PPIT and ePrimer Modules

Slide 13: Intelligent Transportation Systems

  • An engineering discipline that encompasses the research, planning, design, integration, and deployment of systems and applications to:
    • Manage traffic and transit,
    • Improve safety,
    • Provide environmental benefits, and
    • Maximize the efficiency of surface transportation systems.

[This slide contains two images: (1) a photo of a train in a railyard and (2) a photo of a man in a safety t-shirt writing on a clipboard.]

Slide 14: ITS in the Port Context

  • Traditional Focus:
    • Moving vehicles, on an open public network without transactions under limited regulations for public stakeholders
  • Port + ITS Focus:
    • Moving trucks and trains on a bounded network, accessing private spaces, for commercial transactions under tight regulations for private stakeholders

[This slide contains two images: (1) an aerial photo of a highway interchange and (2) an aerial photo of a full truck stop.]

Slide 15: ITS in the Port Context

  • Local/regional - Applications of ITS for the surrounding road and rail network that indirectly impact port operations. This could include the provision of freight signal priority (FSP) on road and rail interchanges in proximity to a terminal.
  • Port specific - Applications of ITS for the port area transportation network, such as terminal roadways, gate access management, and reservation systems.
  • Combination - Applications of ITS that addresses port operations, the port area transportation network and the region. This could include a truck staging and parking application that provides staging information at the terminal, and detailed route information for efficient and timely access to the facility.

[This slide contains an aerial photo of a port area’s terminal roadways.]

Slide 16: The Need for ITS in Ports

Demands and Constraints

  • 52 M TEUs/year in 2017
    114 M by 2040: +118%
  • Demand is spikier
  • Port road and rail systems are static


  • Build new ports
    • Flat Land + Deep Water: Rare and Constrained
  • Build more roads in ports
    • Cities have expanded toward their ports, hemming them in
  • Shift traffic off of roads
    • Intermodal rail has similar issues
  • Build smarter roads
  • Use resources more efficiently

[This slide contains a “NAFTA Container Traffic” graph showing mostly steady growth from 1997 to 2017.]

Slide 17: Potential Benefits for Ports

Service Element Benefits
Safety and Reliability Avoid port-area collisions, goods movement accident losses, hazardous material releases.
Resilience Mitigate the impact of disruptive events.
Cargo Visibility, Reliability Improve the reliability and timeliness of cargo transport.
Improve the responsiveness of service providers.
Vehicle Efficiency and Mobility Reduce travel time, queuing and idling.
Maintain network fluidity.
Improve transport workforce efficiency.
Gate Efficiency Reduce queuing.
Improve accuracy, avoid transaction failure.
Improve gate transaction speed, extend hours, and optimize labor.
Terminal Yard Efficiency Improve density and velocity.
Improve cargo handling equipment deployment.
Reduce cargo rehandling.
Port Efficiency Balance load between terminals.
Respond to congestion events.

Slide 18: Not a Simple Playing Field - Terminals

[This slide contains a graphic representation, a “logic map,” of the complexity of the port environment. At the core is the Storage Yard, with colored sections overlaid upon it: Organized Labor, Terminal Management, Terminal Operations, Terminal Components, and Terminal Services.]

Slide 19: Not a Simple Playing Field - Networks

[This slide contains the logic map from Slide 18, with additional colored sections overlaid upon it: Roadways, Rail Lines, and External Hubs.]

Slide 20: Not a Simple Playing Field - Commerce

[This slide contains the logic map from Slide 19, with additional colored sections overlaid on it: Commercial Entities.]

Slide 21: Not a Simple Playing Field - Governance

[This slide contains the logic map from Slide 20, with additional colored sections overlaid on it: Government Entities.]

Slide 22: Not a Simple Playing Field - Transporters

[This slide contains the logic map from Slide 21, with additional colored sections overlaid on it: Transport Units.]

Slide 23: Enabling Technologies

  • Proximity and Detection Systems
    • Smart Cameras
    • Laser/Infrared Scanners
    • Radio Detection and Ranging
    • Light Detection and Ranging
  • Cargo and Vehicle ID Systems
    • Optical Character Recognition - OCR
    • License Plate Recognition - LPR

[This slide contains two images: (1) a photo of a sign in French, roughly translated: “For your security, speed is monitored by radar” and (2) a photo of a truck on a highway passing underneath a row of cameras.]

Slide 24: Enabling Technologies

  • Vehicle Information Systems
    • Weigh-in-motion - WIM
    • Vehicle Telematics
    • Electronic Logging Devices - ELD
    • Radio Frequency Identification - RFID
  • Location Determination Systems
    • Geographic Positioning System - GPS
    • Differential GPS
    • Bluetooth Tracking

[This slide contains two images: (1) a photo of an electronic logging device mounted to the dashboard of a truck and (2) a photo of a traffic app displaying on a smartphone mounted to the dashboard of a car.]

Slide 25: Enabling Technologies

  • Communication Systems
    • Cellular Communication - 4GC, 5GC
    • Dedicated Short Range Communications
  • Logistics Management Systems
    • Electronic Data Interchange - EDI
    • Internet of Things - IOT
    • Cloud Data and Processing
    • Blockchain

[This slide contains two images: (1) an aerial photo of a drawing board with two pair of hands which are each interacting with smartphones and (2) a photo of a hand holding up a stencil of a cloud against a blue sky with puffy white clouds.]

Slide 26: Technology Interactions

[This slide contains the logic map from Slide 22, magnified, and with additional details added: locations of Proximity and Detection Systems, Cargo and Vehicle ID Systems, Vehicle Information Systems, Location Determination Systems, Communications Systems, and Logistics Management Systems.]

Slide 27: Technology Interactions - Road and Gate

[This slide contains the logic map from Slide 26, magnified even further with a focus on Communications Systems and Logistic Management Systems.]

Slide 28: ITS Applications

  • Local/Regional
    • Connected, Automated and Autonomous Vehicles
    • Platooning Systems
    • Route Guidance
  • Combination
    • Geo-Fencing
    • Freight Signal Priority
    • Rail Yard Integration
    • Integrated Community Portal
    • Freight Advanced Traveler Information System (FRATIS)
    • Traveler Information Reporting
  • Port-Specific
    • Intelligent Recognition and Imaging Software
    • Equipment Tracking System
    • Terminal Operating System
    • Gate Operation System
    • Terminal Status Reporting
    • Gate Queue Reporting
    • Truck Appointment Systems
    • Street Exchange Systems
    • Automated Work Flow

Slide 29: A Recent Example

Mean Gate Wait Times (in minutes - past 5 days)

Time Wed Thur Fri Mon Tue Today
07:00 - - - - - -
08:00 22.3 32.0 39.2 55.4 60.5 21.1
09:00 12.1 7.6 35.6 27.5 38.2 16.9
10:00 8.5 11.9 9.9 18.3 12.0 11.3
11:00 11.5 9.0 29.4 24.3 28.8 17.5
12:00 - - - - - -
13:00 44.2 26.0 52.8 48.3 54.5 48.9
14:00 32.1 11.8 39.9 55.7 39.1 26.8
15:00 24.2 24.2 59.4 42.6 30.3 31.0
16:00 6.0 12.0 45.0 21.5 9.0 10.5

Mean Truck Service Times (in minutes - past 5 days)

Time Wed Thur Fri Mon Tue Today
07:00 - - - - - -
08:00 37.6 26.6 44.2 28.2 29.6 17.9
09:00 39.2 22.0 36.1 37.4 27.0 31.2
10:00 21.2 27.4 34.9 40.4 37.9 28.1
11:00 20.1 21.8 55.3 28.4 43.7 13.3
12:00 - - - - - -
13:00 22.6 25.9 38.1 21.1 45.7 27.3
14:00 27.6 25.1 38.1 23.8 21.8 33.2
15:00 33.2 16.4 35.0 18.1 19.2 48.0
16:00 22.3 19.3 29.6 17.7 27.1 20.2
  • A port authority bought extra bridge toll tag (RFID) readers and placed them at:
    • Tail of entry gate queues
    • Entry into the container yards
    • Exit from the terminals
  • Time stamp readings for each tag, and some filtering, produced gate queue and truck service times
  • Mean results are dynamically updated, in public, on the port’s website

Slide 30: Vehicle to Everything (V2X) and IOT Communications

Improvement Vehicle ←→ Device
Cargo Visibility & Reliability Reliability, timeliness, responsiveness
Vehicle characteristics, shipment location, transport unit location and condition, geofencing, net velocity, driver safety conditions, truck parking info. management system (TPIMS) availability.

[This slide contains a table of V2X and IoT Communications Technologies with a section of the table magnified. That magnified section is reproduced above.]

Slide 31: Stakeholder Matrix

[This slide contains a Stakeholder Matrix image showing levels of interaction (none, modest, and strong) of Government Entities, Commercial Entities, and Individuals with Terminal, Port Area, and Region areas.]

Slide 32: A Systems Engineering Approach

[This slide contains a systems engineering approach graphic flowchart.]

Slide 33: Planning

  • Initiate
    • Set Goals and Objectives
    • Collect Data
    • Engage Stakeholders
  • Quantify
    • Map Existing Conditions
    • Identify Needs and Drivers
  • Form
    • Develop and Refine Alternatives
    • Analyze and Compare

[This slide contains a photo of two men leaning over blueprints and pointing at an area in the plans.]

Slide 34: Cross-functional flow diagrams

[This slide contains two cross-functional flow diagrams.]

Slide 35: Feasibility

  • Assess
    • Potential Performance
    • Human Resource Needs
    • Impacts
    • Risks
  • Evaluate
    • Criteria
    • Prioritization
    • Scoring & Selection
Account Element Weight 1-10 Normalized / Assigned Scores Total Score
Alt. 1 Alt. 2 Alt. 3 Alt. 1 Alt. 2
Operational Performance 32.0 283 268
Capacity at Site Buildout 8.5 10.00 8.00 8.67 85 68
Berth Productivity at Buildout 9.5 10.00 8.75 9.06 95 83
Gate Truck Cycle Time 7.00 8.33 10.00 9.09 58 70
Intermodal Service 7.0 6.3 6.7 6.7 44 47
Development 22.0 193 168
Suitability for Phased Implementation 7.0 9.0 8.0 7.0 63 56
Development Complexity 7.0 8.7 7.7 7.3 61 54
Risk of Delay 8.0 8.7 7.3 6.0 69 59
Financial 26.5 225 235
Net Present Value of Costs ($M) 9.0 8.24 9.33 10.00 74 84
Initial (5-year) Capital Outlay ($M) 9.5 10.00 8.57 7.50 95 81
Unit Operating Cost 8.0 7.00 8.75 10.00 56 70
Workforce 15.0 109 118
Worker Safety 8.0 6.3 8.3 9.3 51 67
Skilled Workforce Availability 7.0 8.3 7.3 8.0 58 51
Optimization of Workforce 7.5 10.00 7.50 5.00 75 56
Environmental 30.5 217 259
Carbon Fuel Consumption 6.5 3.33 10.00 6.67 22 65

[This slide contains a “B/C Ratio of Intermodal Projects @ 7%” chart that displays Thousands of Lifts Per Yr after Ramp-up plotted against Capital Costs.]

Slide 36: Port ITS Considerations

  • Responsibility & Authority
    • Many stakeholders
    • “Ownership” keeps shifting
    • Many drivers, few controls
  • Random Demand
    • Ports serve the fickle sea
    • The landside isn’t much better
  • Transactional Error
    • Freight moves neither faster nor better than its supporting data
  • Labor
    • Bound by contract
    • Bound by tradition
    • Imbalances in power, control
  • Freight Security
    • Avoid theft, damage, pilfering
  • Transportation Security
    • Keep the Bad Guys out
    • Keep the Bad Stuff out
    • Find the Bad Stuff before it becomes Really Bad Stuff
  • Cybernetics
    • Who ARE those Bad Guys?

Slide 37: Cybersecurity and Resiliency

  • Vehicle - NHTSA
    • Harden the vehicle’s electronics against potential attacks and ensure appropriate response.
  • Infrastructure - NIST + USDOT
    • Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity
  • Integration - USDOT ITS JPO et al
    • Research, develop, and educate on cybersecurity technical and policy mitigations.
    • Pursue a unified approach to vehicle, device, and infrastructure security for connected vehicles
  • Navigation - USCG
  • Vessels and Ports - ABS
  • Ships at Sea - IMO
  • Homeland - DHS
  • Maritime - MARAD’s

Slide 38: Financing

  • Strategize
    • Low cost, high return on investment
    • Identify funding opportunities and alternatives
  • Structure
    • Federal funding sources
    • State and local sources
    • Private funding sources
  • State/TCIF $329.8M
  • POLB/TIFIA $325M
  • State/HBP $211.8M
  • POLB/Other $181.8M
  • State/CMIA $153.7M
  • POLB Committed $114M
  • SAFETEA-LU $100M
  • La Metro $28.6M
  • State/SHOPP $16.50M
  • Other Federal $5.8M

[This slide contains two images: (1) a photo of a man and a woman discussing the charts on a white board they’re standing in front of and (2) a Funding Sources pie chart whose details are reproduced in the list above.]

Slide 39: External Funding Sources

  • Federal Programs
    • Discretionary Grants
    • Federal-Aid Grants
    • Federal Loans
    • Private Activity Bonds (PAB)
  • State, Regional, Local
  • Private
Govt. Program Summary Description
ATCMTD Competitive grant for deployment of deploy advanced transportation and congestion management technologies
ITS Funding for the development of ITS infrastructure, equipment, and systems; and ITS research initiatives, exploratory studies, and a deployment support programs.
BUILD Competitive grant for enhancement of surface transportation infrastructure at local and regional level.
INFRA Competitive grant for or credit assistance for highway freight projects of national or regional significance.
STBG Formula funding for States and MPOs for priority transportation projects.
NHFP Formula funding for States to improve movement of freight on National Highway Freight Network.
CMAQ Formula funding for States, MPOs, and local governments for transportation projects and programs to help meet the requirements of the Clean Air Act.
TIFIA Financing assistance for ITS and surface transportation projects, certain freight rail projects, intermodal freight transfer facilities, and certain projects inside a port terminal.
RRIF Financing assistance for railroad equipment, facilities, and infrastructure including positive train control systems.
PABs Tax-exempt financing issued through a public conduit for privately developed infrastructure.

Slide 40: Deployment

  • Prepare
    • Procurement Method
    • Deployment Plan
  • Verify
    • Field Operational Tests
    • Key Performance Indicators
    • Demonstrations
    • Go-Live Checklist

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For inquiries regarding the ITS PCB Program, please contact the USDOT Point of Contact below.
J.D. Schneeberger
Program Manager, Knowledge and Technology Transfer

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