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ITS ePrimer Presentation

Module 3: Application of ITS Technologies in Transportation Management

(Note: The following PowerPoint presentation is a supplement to the module.)

Slide 1: ITS ePrimer Module 3: Application of ITS Technologies in Transportation Management

Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) ePrimer

September 2013

Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office Research and Innovative Technology Administration, USDOT

Author Notes for Slide 1:

This is the first, title slide in all modules.

The following slides are in this order:

  • Instructor
  • Learning Objectives
  • Content-related slide(s)
  • Summary (what we have learned)
  • References
  • Questions?

This module is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation's ITS Professional Capacity Building (PCB) Program. The ITS PCB Program is part of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration's ITS Joint Program Office.

Thank you for participating and we hope you find this module helpful.

Slide 2: Instructor

This is a headshot photo of presenter Mohammed Hadi, Ph.D., P.E., Associate Professor at Florida International University in Miami, Florida USA.

Mohammed Hadi, Ph.D., P.E.
Associate Professor
Florida International University
Miami, FL, USA

Slide 3: Module Purpose

  • Review of the applications of ITS to the management of transportation facilities
  • Identify the benefits of these applications
  • Highlight associated challenges and lessons learned

Author Notes for Slide 3:

Explain that this module is highly related to Module 4 but differs in that Module 3 focuses on the tools utilized in transportation management while Module 4 focuses on the operation and management strategies utilized to improve the performance of transportation systems.

Slide 4: Learning Objectives

  • Describe existing and emerging Transportation Management Systems (TMS) tools
  • Explain associated issues
  • Identify common challenges
  • Identify lessons learned
  • Discuss future actions

Author Notes for Slide 4:

After completing the module, you should be able to:

  • Describe the basic terminology and concepts of transportation management systems (TMS)
  • Be familiar with the applications of ITS to the management of transportation facilities during recurrent and non-recurrent conditions on such facilities
  • Explain highway system management data and the associated needs, data collection, data quality, data sharing, data archiving, and data analysis
  • Identify challenges and lessons learned associated with TMS
  • Discuss future actions with consideration of connected vehicle and highway systems

Slide 5: Need for Managing Transportation

  • Increasing congestion impacts
  • Increasing constraints on new capacity additions
  • New capacity does not necessarily resolve congestion

This is a pie chart in grayscale. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This is a pie chart in grayscale. There are six segments in this chart representing the primary causes of traffic congestion. Starting at the top of chart, moving clockwise, the congestion causes and percentages read as follows: Bottlenecks 40%, Traffic Incidents 25%, Work Zones 10%, Bad Weather 15%, Poor Signal Timing 5%, and Special Events/Other 5%. For additional relevant information about this graph, please refer to the author's notes.)

Source: "Traffic Congestion and Reliability: Trends and Advanced Strategies for Congestion Mitigation." Prepared for Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) by Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Cambridge, MA, September 2005.

Author Notes for Slide 5:

Point out that TMS implementation is necessary to mitigate congestion impacts because of constraints on the addition of new capacity. In addition, adding capacity does not necessarily resolve non-recurrent congestion problems due to incidents, weather, work zones, special events, and poor signal operations. A large proportion of the congestion is due to these non-recurrent events and cannot be adequately addressed by adding capacity.

It is important to note that the congestion pie diagram applies to the National Highway System, which represents only 164,000 miles of roadway. There are 4 million miles of public roads in the U.S. and when considering that the vast majority of those roads are managed by local agencies, the distribution shown in the pie chart may be different.

Slide 6: Transportation System Management

  • Application of advanced strategies and technologies to management
  • Improve performance (mobility, reliability, safety, environmental impacts)

This graphic represents the different facilities or modes in the Integrated Corridor Management system. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This graphic represents the different facilities or modes in the Integrated Corridor Management system. Running horizontally across the top of the blue image is the Local Jurisdiction 1 – Traffic Signal system. This mode is illustrated via a long black horizontal line representing a road. There are three equidistant intersections along this line, each with images of stoplights. Above the line between the first and second intersection is a bus icon. At the second intersection, there is a Parking icon, and a train icon. At the third intersection, there is a stoplight icon. Below that mode is a picture of a railroad track running across the full length of the page. This railroad track represents the Regional Rail Agency – Train Management System." Below the railroad tracks is a visual representation of two highway cloverleaves connected by a road or line. These highway cloverleaves represent the State DOT – Freeway Management System. There are stop and go signals positioned in the northwest and southeast sides of each highway cloverleaf. Below this mode is another roadway system. There is a long black horizontal line representing a road, with four intersections. At each intersection, there is an image of a stoplight below the line. At the second and third intersection, there is a bus icon.)

Source: USDOT Integrated Corridor Management Web site (http://www.its.dot.gov/icms/)

Author Notes for Slide 6:

TMS has been proposed to address recurrent and non-recurrent congestion that impacts mobility, reliability, safety, and environmental impacts.

Point out that Transportation Management Systems (TMS) have been categorized based on the facility or the mode that they manage such as freeway, arterial, transit, freight, and parking facilities. However, integrated system management can be more effective.

A typical implementation of TMS involves one or more transportation management centers (TMC), field infrastructure, and mobile units communicating in real time to monitor and manage transportation systems.

Slide 7: Basic Functions of TMS

This flowchart illustrates the basic functions of TMS. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This flowchart illustrates the basic functions of TMS. Beginning from the top left side of the chart, there is an arrow going from left to right labeled "Collected Data." This arrow points to a large rectangle labeled "System Assessment." From here, another arrow points to the right at a large rectangle labeled "Strategy Determination." From this box, an arrow points to the right at another box labeled "Strategy Execution." This line concludes with an arrow pointing to the right side of the slide labeled "Action." In the middle of the final "Action" arrow, another arrow branches off to form a return loop back to the "Collected Data" arrow. In the middle of this loop is a box labeled "Strategy Evaluation.")

Source: Transportation Management Training Module. Consortium for ITS Training and Education (CITE), University of Maryland, CATT, College Park, MD. Accessed November 2012.

Author Notes for Slide 7:

Point out that, although there are many types of TMS, in general, a TMS includes the four functions on this slide.

Slide 8: Need for Information Collection

  • Performance monitoring
  • Incident management
  • System control
  • Active traffic management
  • Fleet management
  • Priorities/preemptions
  • Modeling/analysis support

The figure shows an example of how archived data and real-time data can be utilized to visualize system performance (e.g., in terms of speed or density) in a time-space contour map. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: The following descriptive notes are from the author. Please also see the Author Notes below for additional relevant information for this slide. The figure shows an example of how archived data and real-time data can be utilized to visualize system performance (e.g., in terms of speed or density) in a time-space contour map. In this map, the horizontal axis represents time and the vertical axis represents distance, while the color represents the level of performance (e.g., red represents very congested conditions, green represents free-flow conditions, etc.).)

Source: Neudorff, L.G., J. E. Randall, R. Reiss, R. Gordon, "Freeway Management and Operations Handbook," Prepared for FHWA, Washington, D.C., September 2003

Author Notes for Slide 8:

Note that information collection is related to the system state estimation and management strategy evaluation functions shown on the previous slide. The information is collected and in most cases uploaded to a central location at different aggregation levels; however, it can also be used locally at a roadside controller. The collected information can be used in real-time and/or archived for use for off-line applications.

Slide 9: Information Collection Technologies

  • Point detectors
  • AVI readers
  • AVL tracking
  • Private sector data
  • CCTV cameras
  • Environmental sensor stations

Bluetooth Traffic Monitoring. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: The title "Bluetooth Traffic Monitoring" is at the top of this image. Below the title, there is an illustration of a car driving down a road. Travel time of 2:32 minutes and a speed of 51.7 MPH are noted. Along the left side of the road, there are images of two Bluetooth sensors running parallel to the road, and noted as being 2 miles apart. The Bluetooth signal time for the icon closest to the car reads "Time = 8:03:26AM." The time closest to the second Bluetooth icon reads "Time = 8:05:58AM." Please see the Author Notes below for further relevant information for this slide.)

Source: Jehanian, K., "I-95 Corridor Coalition Vehicle Probe Project." Presentation made at the USDOT Probe Vehicle Workshop, December 2008.

Author Notes for Slide 9:

Explain that infrastructure point detectors provide traffic parameters measured at a point. Infrastructure-based point detectors include volume, speed, occupancy, presence, vehicle classification, and/or queue length. Segment measures have to be derived based on these point measures. On the other hand, AVI and AVL probe surveillance provide segment and/or trip measures such as travel time and occupancy but generally not counts or occupancy. Private sector data can be another cost-effective source of data.

Note that as currently implemented, many TMS applications, such as ramp metering and signal control, require volume and occupancy (or presence data) provided by point traffic detectors. Thus, the implementation of point traffic detectors is a major component of many applications of TMS, although advancements in Connected Vehicle technologies and the development of new TMS algorithms are expected to reduce the dependency on infrastructure detectors in the future.

Point out that one shortcoming of point detectors is that the travel time and speed estimation based on point detections is difficult, particularly for arterial streets. Thus, for applications that require travel time and possibly origin-destination estimation, probe surveillance technologies based on vehicle re-identification using Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI) technologies (such as electronic toll readers, Bluetooth readers, or automatic license plate readers), tracking based on Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) technologies, and private sector data can be good alternatives and have been increasingly used.

Slide 10: Information Dissemination

  • Travel time
  • Transit information
  • Dynamic speed limit
  • Lane control
  • Dynamic pricing
  • Route guidance
  • Mode guidance
  • AMBER/Silver Alerts

This is an illustration of information dissemination. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This is an illustration of information dissemination. On the left are icons of different types of infrastructure. At the top of the infrastructure column, there is an icon of clouds with two lightning bolts, followed by an icon of cars traveling over a bridge. Next there is a picture of a road traveling over two hills followed by a picture of an overpass going over a highway. Next is clipart of a traffic signal followed by a construction crew. This image is followed by a picture of a police car, a helicopter, a bus, and finally a question mark. All of these images have an arrow from them pointing to an illustration of a man in a data center.  From the data center, there is an arrow pointing to a building with satellite dishes on the roof. From the building, there an array of arrows point to the images of devices on the right side of the slide. From the top, there is an image of the view from the driver's seat of a car, followed by a person on a mobile phone driving a car. Next there are pictures of a digital watch, a pager, a PDA, a cellular phone, a person sitting in front of a computer, and finally a question mark.)

Source: Neudorff, L.G., J. E. Randall, R. Reiss, R. Gordon, Freeway Management and Operations Handbook. Prepared for FHWA, Washington, DC, September 2003.

Author Notes for Slide 10:

Information is used to encourage some type of response from travelers.

Slide 11: Information Dissemination Methods

  • DMS
  • HAR
  • Trailblazers
  • Graphical boards
  • Kiosks
  • 511 phone systems
  • Web sites
  • Phone apps
  • In-vehicle systems

This is a sample screen shot of the Olympic Transportation Information in Salt Lake City, Utah from Commuter Link. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This is a sample screen shot of the Olympic Transportation Information in Salt Lake City, Utah from Commuter Link. On the screen, real-time traffic status is highlighted in green, yellow and red. Icons that can appear on the map include camera locations, signs, a yellow triangle with an exclamation point to identify construction, a red triangle with an exclamation point for incidents, and a sun and clouds for weather.)

Source: Neudorff, L.G., J. E. Randall, R. Reiss, R. Gordon, Freeway Management and Operations Handbook. Prepared for FHWA, Washington, DC, September 2003.

Author Notes for Slide 11:

Note that these traveler information systems will be further discussed in Module 4. Dynamic Message Signs (DMS), Highway Advisory Radio (HAR), and trailblazers are classified as Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) not Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) in National Intelligent Transportation Systems Architecture (NITSA). The remaining technologies are classified as ATIS in NITSA.

Slide 12: Information Dissemination Issues

  • Message content
  • Message format
  • Information credibility
  • Dissemination activation
  • Device location
  • Device type

This is a photograph of an SUV driving under an ITS message board and an overpass on a highway during the winter. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This is a photograph of an SUV driving under an ITS message board and an overpass on a highway during the winter. The road is clear, however the shoulder and grass on both sides of the road are lightly coated with ice and snow. The electronic message board reads "Expect Icy Roads Use Caution.")

Source: Neudorff, L.G., J. E. Randall, R. Reiss, R. Gordon, Freeway Management and Operations Handbook. Prepared for FHWA, Washington, DC, September 2003.

Author Notes for Slide 12:

Explain that there is a need to develop operational policy to guide message development and posting. This policy should be based on identified needs and requirements that can be traced to the TMS concept of operations. The policy should cover who is allowed to post messages, the type of messages, the conditions that warrant message posting, the locations of these postings under different conditions, and so on.

Slide 13: Ramp Control

  • Ramp metering
  • Ramp closure
  • Signal control at off-ramps
  • Freeway-to-freeway connector metering

This is a photograph of gate system used for ramp control. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This is a photograph of gate system used for ramp control. There are two gates used to control access to the road lanes. The gates are red and white striped and raise and lower via hinge installed on the side of the road. The gate in the foreground of the photo is closed with a "Do Not Enter" sign in the middle. The gate on the far side of the road is open, to allow traffic through.)

Source: Neudorff, L.G., J. E. Randall, R. Reiss, R. Gordon, Freeway Management and Operations Handbook. Prepared for FHWA, Washington, DC, September 2003.

Author Notes for Slide 13:

Explain that these strategies should be considered based on identified needs. Ramp metering is the most widely used. Ramp closures can be beneficial during severe events such as incidents, adverse weather, planned and special events, and fire/smoke. Due to high speed and heavy volume on freeway-to-freeways connectors, longer queuing storage and advance warning devices are required.

Slide 14: Ramp Metering Strategies

  • Isolated or coordinated
  • Pre-timed, traffic responsive, or adaptive
  • Preferential treatment of HOV, transit, emergency vehicles, or trucks

This photograph is an example of how ramp strategies affect congestion. In the photo there is a two way ramp. On the right is a long line of cars waiting. On the left, is a car pool lane with only one car waiting in the queue.

Source: Jacobson, L., J. Stribiak, L.Nelson, and D. Sallman, Ramp Management and Control Handbook. Report No. FHWA-HOP-06-001, Produced for FHWA by PB Farradyne, Washington, DC, January 2006.

Author Notes for Slide 14:

Explain that the selection of strategy and control algorithm is an important consideration. Local control selects metering rates to address congestion and/or safety problems at a specific on-ramp merge area. This strategy is normally applied where the congestion problem is isolated. System-wide control selects metering rates on a number of on-ramp locations in a coordinated manner based on the conditions along a freeway segment, an entire corridor, or even a network of corridors.

Pre-timed also referred to as time-of-day or fixed time control utilizes metering rates calculated off-line based on historical conditions and are applied at a fixed schedule by time of day and day of the week. With traffic responsive and adaptive control, traffic parameters measured in real-time are used as inputs to a ramp metering algorithms to determine the metering rates and, in some cases, when and where to activate ramp metering.

Slide 15: Ramp Metering Issues

  • Mainline vs. ramp performance
  • Impacts on other facilitie
  • Public perception of adverse effects
  • Public outreach efforts
  • Coordination with other agencies

This is an illustration comparing mainline versus ramp performance. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This is an illustration comparing mainline versus ramp performance. In the graphic there are two scenarios. On the left is a scenario where there is a two lane road, and there is a long line of cars waiting for their turn at the ramp meter. The line of cars extends all the way to the left lane of the main roadway, causing traffic to be backed up. As a result, mainline traffic flowing in the left lane are forced to switch to the right lane. In the second scenario on the right, again, there is a long line of cars waiting to pass the ramp meter. However in this scenario, there is a third exit lane built into the main road. As a result, the long line of cars extend out to the exit lane, leaving the two primary lanes free for mainline traffic flow.)

Source: Jacobson, L., J. Stribiak, L. Nelson, and D. Sallman, Ramp Management and Control Handbook. Report No. FHWA-HOP-06-001, Produced for FHWA by PB Farradyne, Washington, DC, January 2006.

Author Notes for Slide 15:

Point out that a number of issues are associated with ramp metering including:

  • Achieving a balance between freeway mainline improvements and vehicle delays and queues at the on-ramps and parallel routes.
  • Need to address perception that metering adversely affects on-ramp traffic, other facilities in the region, or other specific traveler groups (equity issues). Establish public information and outreach efforts.
  • Coordination is needed with transportation agencies responsible for managing other effected transportation facilities.

Slide 16: Ramp Metering Benefits — MN Study

  • 9% increase in throughput
  • 14% decrease in travel time
  • Travel time reliability improvement
  • 26% decrease in crashes
  • Benefit to cost ratio of 15 to 1

This photograph is an example of a ramp meter warning sign. It shows a yellow diamond street sign with an amber light mounted on top of the sign post. The sign reads Ramp Metered with Flashing. The amber light is on. To the right of the sign, a line of cars drive down an urban road.

Courtesy: Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT)

Author Notes for Slide 16:

Note that the Minnesota study is one of the most important studies conducted to evaluate ramp metering. A large deployment of ramp metering is operated by the Minnesota DOT in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Region with more than 430 ramp meters. The Twin Cities ramp metering system was subject to an extensive evaluation during which the ramp meters were turned off for a six-week period for evaluation of the impacts of the ramp metering.

Slide 17: Multimedia Example

This is a photograph of a ramp meter. It looks like a traditional stoplight with a red, yellow and green light. Mounted on the light post below the stoplight is a sign that reads: 1 Car Per Green.

Author Notes for Slide 17:

Point out that Ramp Metering: Signal for Success is a Federal Highway Administration Video that provides a basic introduction to ramp metering and is intended for local decision-makers and the public, and features testimonials from officials of several cities.

Slide 18: Managed Lanes

  • High occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes
  • High occupancy toll (HOT) lanes
  • Express toll lanes (ETL)
  • Truck-only toll (TOT) lanes
  • Bus lanes
  • Other special use lanes

This graphic illustrates the use of managed lanes and weave lanes in relation to main lane traffic. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This graphic illustrates the use of managed lanes and weave lanes in relation to main lane traffic. From the top of the illustration, there are two main lane traffic roads traveling west. Just below the main lane traffic is a weave lane that connects the main lane traffic to three managed lane traffic. The managed lane traffic meets the road median. On the other side of the road is a single lane of managed lane traffic traveling east. The managed lane traffic is then connected to two lanes of main lane traffic by a weave lane.)

Source: Managed Lanes—A Primer. Sponsored by FHWA, Washington, DC, August 2008.

Author Notes for Slide 18:

The type of managed lane should be selected based on goals and objectives, performance assessment, and modeling/analysis.

Slide 19: Managed Lane

Strategies and Considerations

  • Pricing strategies (fixed or dynamic)
  • Vehicle eligibility
  • Access control
  • Enforcement
  • Public outreach
  • Modeling and analysis

This figure shows various lane management strategies with different levels of active management and lane management strategies. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: The following descriptive notes are from the author. Please also see the Author Notes below for additional relevant information for this slide. This figure shows various lane management strategies with different levels of active management and lane management strategies. The x-axis represents the level of complexity with active management, while the y-axis represents the lane management strategy level. The colored areas represent different strategies as related to the levels indicated by the x-axis and y-axis.)

Source: Managed Lanes—A Primer. Sponsored by FHWA, Washington, DC, August 2008.

Author Notes for Slide 19:

Note that increasingly, however, agencies are implementing dynamic pricing strategies that change the toll rate based on real-time measurements. Vehicle eligibility that involves selecting the type of vehicles allowed on the managed lanes, either for free or for a toll. Access control that determines the access points to the managed lane should be determined as part of the planning, traffic/simulation analyses, and design processes. It is also important for the transportation agency to communicate the benefits of the managed lane project through public outreach activities. Enforcement is another important element of a managed lane implementation and should be considered early in project development.

Slide 20: Multimedia Example

This is a photograph taken from the passenger side of a vehicle driving in a managed lane. White poles separate the managed lanes from the main lane traffic on the right.

Courtesy: Florida Department of Transportation

Author Notes for Slide 20:

Informational video about the Florida Department of Transportation's 95 Express. The video describes how the project combines the four transportation management techniques of transit, tolling, technology, and travel-demand management to improve the travel-time reliability and reduce congestion on Interstate 95 in Miami-Dade County.

Slide 21: Other Active Traffic Management

  • Variable speed limit
  • Queue warning
  • Lane control
  • Reversible lanes
  • Hard shoulder running
  • Bus-on-shoulder

This is a photograph illustrating traffic management. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This is a photograph illustrating traffic management. There is a three lane highway running in both directions. On the right side of the highway, there is an additional exit lane. The exit lane and the main lane on the right branch off to become a two-lane exit ramp.)

Source: Fuh, C., Synthesis of Active Traffic Management: Experiences in Europe and the United States. Publication # FHWA-HOP-10-031, Prepared for FHWA by Parsons Brinckerhoff, Washington, DC, March 2010.

Author Notes for Slide 21:

Other use of strategies, tools, and resources to dynamically manage, control, and influence traffic flow and travel demand of transportation facilities

Slide 22: Arterial Systems

  • Signal systems
  • Bus priority
  • Emergency vehicle preemption
  • Rail-road crossing preemption
  • Parking information
  • System/equipment monitoring

The image shows a pyramid made up of four stacked sections. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: The image shows a pyramid made up of four stacked sections. At the top of the pyramid is the "Goal" section. Next to the "Goal" is the statement "What are we trying to achieve." Below the goal is the "Objective" section. This section determines "What needs to be done to achieve the goal." Under the Objectives is the "Strategy" section. Here, the capabilities needed to be put in place to achieve the goal are determined. The base of the pyramid is labeled "Tactic." Here specific methods to achieve the goal are determined. For additional relevant information about this graph, please see the Author Notes below.)

Source: "Planning for Success: Applying Systems Engineering to ASCT Implementation." Presentation by Eddie Curtis, FHWA Office of Operations/Resource Center

Author Notes for Slide 22:

Arterial systems are strategies or tactics to support specific operations objectives articulated at a local, regional, or state level. Arterial Management should be organized around a set of Goals, Objectives, Strategies, and Tactics, all validated through a set of meaningful performance measures.

Examples:

  • Goal - Keep the cars moving and if they stop, not for very long.
  • Objective - Provide smooth flow on arterial routes to commuter traffic on facilities that are parallel to or provide access to state highway and interstate routes.
  • Strategy - Implement a traffic signal control system to provide the capability to manage, operate, and maintain traffic signals.
  • Tactic - Provide coordinated signal timing during peak hours to facilitate access to state highway and interstate routes.

Note that other active management strategies (dynamic speed recommendations, queue warning, lane control, managed lane, DMS, etc.) are also applicable to arterial management.

Slide 23: Signal Operations

  • Updates based on:
    • Performance measurements
    • Operational objectives
  • Signal timing
    • Manual
    • Optimization tools
    • Fine-tuning

This figure is for general illustrative purposes only. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: The following descriptive notes are from the author. Please also see the Author Notes below for additional relevant information for this slide. This figure is for general illustrative purposes only. The figure shows a series of various stoplight configurations above and a dual ring diagram of an eight phase signal control that defines the basis of signal control and associated rules of switching between phases.)

Source: Koonce, P., L. Rodegerdts, K. Lee, S. Quayle, S. Beaird, C. Braud, J. Bonneson, P. Tarnoff, and T. Urbanik, "Traffic Signal Timing Manual." Produced for FHWA, Contract No. DTFH61-98-C-00075, Task Order No. B98C75-009, Washington, DC, June 2008.

Author Notes for Slide 23:

Note that poor traffic signal timing is one of the major reasons for traffic delays in urban arterials. Poor traffic signal timing is the outcome of ineffective traffic signal management programs and a lack of performance measurement to indicate that the timing has become inappropriate for the traffic conditions.

The traffic signal report card can be used as a reference.

Traffic signals should be timed to meet specified operational objectives. A set of meaningful performance measures should be used to determine if these objectives are achieved and signal updates should be based on evaluating resource constraints and meeting prioritized operations objectives. Existing signal optimization software possibly combined with microscopic simulation can help in this effort. However, field fine-tuning of the resulting timing is often necessary. A systematic program that evaluates operations objectives and resource constraints should help determine which tools an agency uses to optimize signal timing. In many cases manual methods can produce superior outcomes to simulation and optimization if these tools are not properly aligned with operations objectives and performance measures.

Point out that coordination of signals provides additional benefits compared to optimizing the operation of isolated signals.

One study showed that coordinated signal systems produced an average of 7.4% reduction in travel time, 16.5% reduction in delay, and 17% reduction in stops. However, the range of improvements has a huge range with typical B/C as high as 40:1.

Slide 24: Multimedia Example

This is an example screenshot of the Southwestern Pennsylvania Commission website. See the author’s notes for more relevant information on this site.

Author Notes for Slide 24:

The Southwestern Pennsylvania Commission has developed a regional traffic signal program that includes technical assistance to municipalities as well as potential funding to assist in upgrading signal systems in the region. The regional traffic signal program has produced this before and after videos of signal retiming.

Slide 25: Multimedia Example

Author Notes for Slide 25:

Coordinating traffic signals is one of the most cost-effective ways to help traffic move more efficiently. A four-minute video (http://www.marc.org/transportation/ogl/video.htm) explains how 20 cities, two states, and the Federal Highway Administration are working together with the Mid-America Regional Council to help improve traffic flow in Greater Kansas City.

Slide 26: Advanced Signal Control Strategies

  • Traffic responsive control - initially proposed
  • Adaptive signal control technology
  • FHWA Model Systems Engineering Document for ASCT

This image is the cover art of Model Systems Engineering Documents for Adaptive Signal Control Technology (ASCT) Systems. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This image is the cover art of the "Model Systems Engineering Documents for Adaptive Signal Control Technology (ASCT) Systems." On the cover there is a photo of a traffic signal on the left side of the page that is lightly masked by a faint image of blurred lines. The title of the document is located on the right side of the page. For additional relevant information about this image, please see the Author Notes below.)

Author Notes for Slide 26:

Describe briefly the difference between time-of-day, traffic responsive, and traffic adaptive control. Traffic responsive control was initially proposed but now the focus is on adaptive technologies.

Adaptive signal control strategies have been developed since the 1980s, with increasing interest in these strategies in the United States in recent years.

Point to FHWA Model Systems Engineering Documents for Adaptive Signal Control Technology Systems - Guidance Document. The Model Systems Engineering Document for ASCT is intended to help agencies apply a systematic process (systems engineering) to the implementation of adaptive control. The document can be used at the planning stage to determine if ASCT is an appropriate strategy to achieve stated operations objectives. The document is also intended for application during the implementation of ASCT projects facilitating the alignment of agency objectives and needs with a set of requirements to support the procurement of an ASCT system.

Slide 27: Multimedia Examples

This photograph illustrates the use of pedestrian sensors for adaptive signal timing in Santa Clara County. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This photograph illustrates the use of pedestrian sensors for adaptive signal timing in Santa Clara County. The image shows a group of people crossing an urban street. On the upper right corner, there is a picture of a crosswalk signal. The signal is displaying an led-generated hand with a countdown timer. On the lower left corner is a photo of the Series 900 TS2 reader. Next to that image, written on a faded red line in white are the words "Regular Ped Time.")

Author Notes for Slide 27:

Santa Clara County adaptive signal timing for pedestrians in Santa Clara County that uses pedestrian sensors.

Slide 28: Preemption at Railroad Crossing

  • Clear queues backing to tracks
  • Prevent spillback to adjacent intersections
  • MUTCD requires preemption within 200' of track
  • Longer distance may be necessary

Preemption at Railroad Crossing. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: On the left side of this diagram, railroad tracks are running vertically down the page. A road is crossing over the railroad track and travels right. On the right, the road meets an intersecting road. At the intersection, red and green arrows are used to signify the direction of travel. There are red lines crossing over the road on both sides of where the road intersects with the railroad. On the right side of the track, blue cars are driving towards the railroad, and are backed up along the road behind the red gate. The entire length of the blue car line is called the "Gate Spill Back" Queue. This queue extends through the intersection. The portion of the "Gate Spill Back" Queue prior to the intersection is called the "Available Storage Distance." There is a long line of green cars driving towards the intersection, and stopped. The green cars are backed up beyond the railroad tracks. This line of cars from the intersection point back past the railroad intersection is called the "Influence Zone" Queue. For additional relevant information about this diagram, please see the Author Notes below.)

Source: Skehan, S., "Highway-Rail Grade Crossing Preemption Seminar Sacramento." California, October 10-11, 2007.

Author Notes for Slide 28:

Point out that field measurements of queue lengths during critical traffic periods should be used to determine if preemption is needed. If field observation is not possible because the crossing is not yet in full operation, an acceptable modeling technique can be used to estimate the queue.

Preemption and priority as with signal control should follow the goal, objectives, strategy, and tactic framework discussed previously with consideration of what the agency or system is seeking to achieve through its implementation.

Slide 29: Emergency Vehicle Preemption (EVP)

  • Improve response time, safety, and stress levels
  • Selection of supporting technology
  • Selection of EVP locations
  • Routing EV around congestion

This image represents Emergency Vehicle Preemption. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This image represents Emergency Vehicle Preemption. In this illustration, a fire engine approaches an intersection. Vehicles in front of the fire engine are making a left turn, while cars are waiting at the cross street. A faint cone is drawn in front of the bus, with the point beginning at a single point on the roof of the fire engine. The cone broadens out and extends in front of the fire truck up to the intersection. Blue curves are drawn on the cone to highlight the range at which the fire engine can be detected.)

Source: Koonce, P., L. Rodegerdts, K. Lee, S. Quayle, S. Beaird, C. Braud J. Bonneson, P. Tarnoff, and T. Urbanik, Traffic Signal Timing Manual. Produced for FHWA, Contract No. DTFH61-98-C-00075. Task Order No. B98C75-009, Washington, DC, June 2008.

Author Notes for Slide 29:

Results from a before and after comparison indicated that emergency vehicle response times decreased by 14 to 23 percent, saving approximately 70 seconds per response, on a typical response that spanned three to six signalized intersections. EVP evaluation indicated that the effective service radius of a fire and rescue station can be extended from less than 1.25 miles to more than 2 miles, potentially reducing the need for new stations and/or new equipment. Other studies showed significant reduction in emergency vehicle (EV) crashes.

A number of technologies have been used for EVP including radio-based, GPS-based, light-based, infrared-based, and sound-based. The preemption can be activated either by the local controllers or by the central system. When selecting technologies, consideration should be made of interoperability with other systems locally and in adjacent jurisdictions.

Some cities have installed EVP on all their signals. Others installed EVP only at frequently used paths of emergency vehicles, intersections with identified problems, or on newly installed signals.

EVP may not work well when lots of calls for preemption are made. Current systems can only service the first call, one at a time.

During oversaturated conditions with long queues, the EVP is not effective due to the long queues in front of the EV.

Slide 30: Transit Signal Priority (TSP)

  • Active TSP approaches
    • Early green, green extension, phase insertion, phase rotation
  • Passive TSP
  • Queue jumpers
  • Full bus lanes on arterials
  • Bus-on-shoulders
  • Transit on managed lanes

This graphic illustrates a scenario for Transit Signal Priority. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This graphic illustrates a scenario for Transit Signal Priority. On the left side of the image, there is a bus icon next to a large circle representing time or signal delay. The position of the bus is associated with "Point of detection." From the point of detection, one-third of the circle on the left is highlighted in alternating yellow and green wedges. The colored area represents shorter signal delay. On the right side of the image is a text box titled "Early Green." Under "Early Green," the following bullet points appear: Bus arrives during Main Street red; Subsequent phases are shortened to "acceptable" TSP Minimum Greens; Bus receives green 45 sec earlier than normal timing; Main Street is green at local zero point in cycle, maintaining coordination with accident traffic signals.")

Source: Smith, H., B. Hemily, M. Ivanovic, Transit Signal Priority (TSP): A Planning and Implementation Handbook. Prepared for the United States Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, May 2005.

Author Notes for Slide 30:

Explain that, although preemption and priority may utilize similar equipment, these two strategies are different. Signal priority modifies the normal signal operation to accommodate transit vehicles, while preemption interrupts the operation. Note that preemption at railroad crossing has a priority over emergency vehicle preemption and the later has priority transit signal priority.

Previous evaluation of TSP indicates bus travel time saving of about 15% depending on the exiting signal delay with minor impacts on the overall intersection operations.

Careful attention should be given to minimizing the impact on general traffic operations.

Passive TSP does not require hardware and software modifications and is based on historical knowledge of transit route, schedule, dwell time, and ridership.

A queue jumper combines a short stretch of a special lane with a TSP to allow buses to bypass waiting queues of traffic.

Slide 31: Integrated Corridor Management (ICM)

  • Information sharing and coordination between agencies
  • Improvement of operational efficiency based on coordinated operation
  • Promotion of cross-network shifts
  • Planning for operations

This image is a repeat representation of Integrated Corridor Management from slide 6. Please see slide 6 for a description.

Source: USDOT Integrated Corridor Management WebSite (http://www.its.dot.gov/icms/)

Author Notes for Slide 31:

Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) can be defined as a collection of operational strategies and advanced technologies that allow transportation subsystems managed by one or more transportation agencies to operate in a coordinated and integrated manner, thereby increasing overall system throughput and enhancing the mobility, reliability, and safety of corridor users. An ICM initiative consists of the operational coordination of multiple transportation networks and cross-network connections comprising a corridor, and the coordination of institutions responsible for corridor mobility. The transportation subsystems could include freeways, arterials, parking, public transit, and freight facilities.

Slide 32: USDOT ICM Program

  • Practice review
  • Initial feasibility research
  • Technical guidance
  • Analytic tools and methods
  • Modeling, demonstration, and evaluation of ICM approaches

This image is a repeat representation of Integrated Corridor Management from slides 6 and 31. Please see slide 6 for a description.

Source: USDOT Integrated Corridor Management Web Site (http://www.its.dot.gov/icms/)

Author Notes for Slide 32:

The USDOT's seven year ICM initiative aims at the development of new approaches for efficiently managing existing assets within a corridor.

Initially, all eight sites developed site-specific concept of operations (ConOps) and requirements documents. Three selected sites among the eight sites were selected for the application of Analysis, Modeling, and Simulation (AMS) methods. These three sites were Dallas, TX; Minneapolis, MN; and San Diego, CA. Phase 4 has involved outreach and knowledge and technology transfer to allow practitioners around the country to implement ICM strategies. The systems in Dallas and San Diego have entered the initial operations phase.

Slide 33: Transportation Management Centers (TMC)

  • Focal point of transportation management systems
  • Focal point of coordinating with and communicating with other agencies

This is a photograph of a Transportation Management Center. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This is a photograph of a Transportation Management Center. In the photo, a man sits in front of a wall of ten monitors. On the computer monitors are live pictures from traffic cameras, as well as browsers and terminal windows. Above the worker's head, are two line graphs projected onto the wall showing real-time traffic data for both directions of I-95.)

Courtesy of Florida Department of Transportation

Author Notes for Slide 33:

Note that the TMC is where information about the transportation network is collected, processed, fused, and used to make decisions to effectively manage the system. TMC is also the focal point of coordinating with and communicating transportation related information to the media, information service providers, emergency and enforcement agencies, other transportation agencies, and the motoring public.

Slide 34: TMC Classifications

  • Freeway Management Centers
  • Traffic Signal System Centers
  • Transit Management Centers
  • Multijurisdictional/Multi modal TMCs

This is a sample screenshot of the software used to manage status displays. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This is a sample screenshot of the software used to manage status displays. On this system, controllers are able to see the status of each display, identify the cause of device errors, as well as write and categorize the message to be displayed on the board. The status of the device is color coded green and red. Green represents the device is working properly. Red indicates an error has occurred. The message on this sample board reads "Bayway closed 1:00-3:00 PM Fri., Sat., Sun." See additional Author Notes below.)

Source: Neudorff, L.G., J. E. Randall, R. Reiss, R. Gordon, Freeway Management and Operations Handbook. Prepared for FHWA, Washington, DC, September 2003.

Author Notes for Slide 34:

Freeway Management Centers (FMC): These centers are typically responsible for the monitoring and control of traffic on limited access facilities.

Traffic Signal System Centers (TSC): These centers focus monitoring and control functions of traffic signals on urban surface street networks.

Transit Management Centers (TRMC): These centers track and manages transit fleets. Depending on the center, the fleet could include buses, railcars, and/or paratransit vehicles.

In real-world implementations, the FMC functionalities are included in what is referred to as a regional traffic management center (RTMC) or a department of transportation or toll authority traffic management center, and the term FMC is not commonly used. Sometimes, these centers are also responsible for managing ITS deployment on arterial streets, in addition to freeways. Similarly, there are a variety of names used to reference traffic signal centers and TRMC in real-world implementations.

Slide 35: Multimedia Example

This is a sample screen shot about the Florida Advanced Traffic Management Center SunGuide Software. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This is a sample screen shot about Florida's Advanced Traffic Management Center SunGuide Software. On the left side of the image under the software title, the following bulleted text appears: Successfully deployed at 12 regional TMCs. Underneath the main bullet point are the following sub-bullets: Highly customizable and flexible, Manages diverse set of ITS devices, and Added value with operational modules. On the right of the image is a photograph showing workers in a Transportation Management Center control room.)

Courtesy of Florida Department of Transportation

Author Notes for Slide 35:

Describe Florida Department of Transportation TMC Software Statewide deployment

Slide 36: Center-to-Center Coordination

  • Sharing of information such as during events
  • Coordinated strategy
  • Coordinated control (e.g., signal control in adjacent jurisdictions)

This figure is for general illustrative purposes only. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: The following descriptive notes are from the author. Please also see the Author Notes below for additional relevant information for this slide. This figure is for general illustrative purposes only. The diagram shows an example framework of regional center-to-center coordination as presented in the FHWA Freeway Management and Operations Handbook. It is a flow chart with illustrated icons and shows a regional transportation management center communicating with other traffic management centers through center-to-center protocols. These centers communicate with each other and with a variety of field devices. Agency operators may also co-located at the regional traffic management center and connection to the web for information dissemination can be implemented, as shown in the figure.)

Source: Neudorff, L.G., J. E. Randall, R. Reiss, and R. Gordon, Freeway Management and Operations Handbook. Prepared for FHWA, Washington, DC, September 2003.

Author Notes for Slide 36:

Center-to-center coordination is a key component in transportation systems management and operations (TSM&O) and ICM implementations, allowing agencies to work together to maximize the utilization of all capabilities to achieve agency and regional goals and objectives.

Information can be shared in real-time during events (such as incidents, work zones, and special events) or off-line as part of event planning or following the event as a "postmortem" evaluation.

Slide 37: Multijurisdictional/Multimodal TMCs

  • Seamless travel information across jurisdictional boundaries
  • More effective and integrated management
  • Cost savings
  • Improved working relationships
  • Need formal agreement

The diagram shows an example concept of information sharing between different types of agencies. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: The following descriptive notes are from the author. Please also see the Author Notes below for additional relevant information for this slide. The diagram shows an example concept of information sharing between different types of agencies including transportation management centers (TMCs), Emergency Operation Centers (EOC), and what is referred to as a Fusion Center (FC). This concept is presented in the "Information Sharing Guidebook for Transportation Management Centers, Emergency Operation Centers, and Fusion Centers." Each of these centers share information with other centers, mobile units, and infrastructure devices. A fusion center (FC) is envisioned as a collaborative effort of two or more agencies that provide resources, expertise, and information to the center with the goal of maximizing their ability to detect, prevent, investigate, and respond to criminal and terrorist activity. Some forms of FCs address specific laws such as driver licensing, banking crime, or specific critical infrastructure elements. At the same time, some FCs also synthesize information and focus on a much wider set of public safety and national security challenges (such as terrorism, major criminal activities, public health risks, major economic risks, critical infrastructure protection, and major natural hazards).)

Source: Information Sharing Guidebook for Transportation Management Centers, Emergency Operation Centers, and Fusion Centers. Prepared for FHWA, Washington, DC, June 2010.

Author Notes for Slide 37:

In some regions, regional multijurisdictional TMCs have been established that include various transportation management and enforcement agencies in the region. The benefits include providing seamless travel information across jurisdictional boundaries; allowing more effective and integrated management of the entire transportation system; and providing savings in implementation, operation, and maintenance costs.

Improved working relationships between agencies is expected. However, there is a need for formal agreement on operation processes and parameters.

Slide 38: TMS Device Maintenance

  • Preventive maintenance
  • Responsive maintenance
  • Emergency maintenance
  • Continuous funding is a main issue

This is a photograph of a TMS Device Maintenance crew repairing a device along a highway. In the photo is a white utility truck parked on the shoulder of the highway, while a maintenance worker stands on the platform below the TMS device, doing repairs.

Courtesy Schneider Electric (formerly Telvent)

Author Notes for Slide 38:

Preventive maintenance is scheduled operations performed to keep the systems operating

Responsive maintenance refers to operations that are initiated by a fault or trouble report

Emergency maintenance is similar to responsive maintenance, but the fault is more serious and requires immediate action.

Slide 39: Transportation Data

  • Performance measurements
  • Planning for operations
  • Decision support tools
  • Predictive modeling
  • Impact assessment
  • Modeling and operational analysis

This is a clipart graphic used to represent Roadway Statistics. In this image, there are two sheets of paper lying flat on a blue surface, each showing line graphs. There are two three-dimensional bar graphs, one red and one green, coming out of the page.

Courtesy: Florida Department of Transportation

Author Notes for Slide 39:

Data archiving is important to planning and operation. ITS data archiving, also referred to as ITS data warehousing, is defined as "the systematic retention and reuse of transportation data that is typically collected to fulfill real-time transportation operation and management needs."

Slide 40: Transportation Data Issues

  • Resources and funding
  • Central warehouse vs. virtual warehouse
  • Data quality
  • Data fusion
  • Adequate documentation
  • Accessibility
  • Maintainability
  • Ease of use

This is a clipart graphic used to represent Roadway Statistics. In this image, there are two sheets of paper lying flat on a blue surface, each showing line graphs. There are two three-dimensional bar graphs, one red and one green, coming out of the page.

Courtesy: Florida Department of Transportation

Author Notes for Slide 40:

Explain that a good approach may be to start with the implementation of a small prototype, then expand to archiving more data sources and more complex systems with time.

Adequate documentation of the data archive and the associated data collection system is necessary.

Virtual data warehouse operates with several agencies operating their own individual data archives that are connected and integrated through computer interfaces.

Slide 41: USDOT Data Capture Program

  • Support acquisition and provision of integrated, multisource data
  • Enable the development of data environments

This graphic represents the USDOT Real-Time Data Capture and Management program. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This graphic represents the USDOT Real-Time Data Capture and Management program. In this image, there are two sections made up of two dash-lined rectangular boxes. The left section is titled "Real-time Data Capture and Management." In this section there are six icons. From the top, the icons are a section of road with three cars to represent Infrastructure Status Data, a car with the words "65 mph, brakes on, two passengers" beneath it to represent Vehicle Status Data, a sun partially hidden by a gray cloud and a lightning bolt to represent Weather Data, an 18-wheeler for truck data, a city bus for Transit Data, and a GPS representation of a highway cloverleaf with a red arrow to represent Data from Mobile Devices. Each of these icons have a yellow arrow pointing from the icon to an orange circle labeled "Data Environment." From the "Data Environment, there are six arrows pointing away from the circle, towards six different icons in the right section of the image. These icons are highlighted as "Dynamic Mobility Applications." The following icons appear in this section: an emergency vehicle with ITS Reduce speed 35 mph message representing Weather Applications, a city bus with signal waves at a stop light to represent Transit Signal Priority, a computer representing Real-time Travel Info, an 18-wheeler representing Fleet Management/Dynamic Route Guidance, a triangle made up of green arrows and a car with signal waves approaching a stoplight for Real-Time Signal Phase and Timing Optimization, and finally, two cars traveling on a curved road approaching a damaged bridge, representing Safety Alert and Divisions.)

Source: USDOT RITA Web site (http://www.its.dot.gov/)

Author Notes for Slide 41:

USDOT Real-Time Data Capture and Management program supports the active acquisition and systematic provision of integrated, multisource data that enhances current operational practices and transforms future surface transportation systems management.

Slide 42: Connected Vehicles (CV)

  • Detailed probe data (type, quality, and quantity)
  • Communication between TMC, drivers, and vehicles
  • Better analysis of performance and responses

This set of images illustrates where the Transportation Management Center connects with driver and vehicle data. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This set of images illustrates where the Transportation Management Center connects with driver and vehicle data. On the left is a photograph of a TMC controller looking at a bank of monitors. On the right, is a graphical representation of an urban roadway next to a train. There are five yellow dotted lines going from the TMC controller on the left to the following on the right: a bus stop, a parking reader, a ramp meter, a bus, and a train.)

Source: USDOT RITA Web site

(http://www.its.dot.gov/data_capture/data_capture.htm)

Author Notes for Slide 42:

Note that Connected Vehicles (CV) will enable collecting detailed probe data from connected vehicles on-board units (OBU) and will allow much more detailed and accurate system state estimation. Also, note the ability to communicate information between transportation management centers, drivers, and vehicles will allow new methods of executing management strategies. In addition, information collected from the connected vehicle regarding performance and responses to management strategies will allow superior evaluation of these strategies both in real-time operations and off-line in planning for operations.

Slide 43: Connected Vehicle- Example Applications

  • Integrated Corridor Management (ICM)
  • Weather-responsive management
  • Signal control
  • Signal information dissemination
  • Priority and preemption
  • Active traffic management
  • Automated highway applications

The diagram presents an overview of the USDOT Dynamic Mobility Applications (DMA) Program and the bundle of DMA applications envisioned by the program. Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: The following descriptive notes are from the author. Please also see the Author Notes below for additional relevant information for this slide. The diagram presents an overview of the USDOT Dynamic Mobility Applications (DMA) Program and the bundle of DMA applications envisioned by the program. The DMA Program seeks to create applications that fully leverage frequently collected and rapidly disseminated multi-source data gathered from connected travelers, vehicles and infrastructure, and that increase efficiency and improve individual mobility while reducing negative environmental impacts and safety risks. The identified DMA application bundles include MMITSS (Multimodal Intelligent Traffic Signal System), INFLO (Intelligent Network Flow Optimization), R.E.S.C.U.M.E. (Response, Emergency Staging and Communications, Uniform Management, and Evacuation), Enable ATIS (Enable Advanced Traveler Information Systems), FRATIS (Freight Advanced Traveler Information Systems), and IDTO (Integrated Dynamic Transit Operations).)

Source: USDOT RITA Web site (http://www.its.dot.gov/)

Author Notes for Slide 43:

Examples include:

  • Applications that integrate adaptive strategies across modes and facilities
  • Weather-responsive management
  • Adaptive signal controls
  • Broadcasting real-time data about traffic Signal Phase and Timing to vehicles
  • Traffic signal prioritization and emergency vehicles preemption
  • Arterial network signal coordination
  • Active traffic management applications such as speed management
  • Automated highway applications such as cooperative adaptive cruise
  • Corridor and regional management

Slide 44: Summary

  • TMS strategies contribute significantly to improving mobility, reliability, safety, transportation security, and emergency response
  • TMS contributions will increase in the coming years as the available technologies and associated strategies continue to advance
  • Connected vehicle-highway technologies offer the potential for significantly enhancing all processes of TSM&O

Author Notes for Slide 44:

There are a variety of TMS applications that are contributing significantly to reducing the congestion problems and the unreliability of the transportation systems around the country. TMS also play a major role in enhancing safety, transportation security, and emergency response. TMS contribution to improving system performance will only increase in the coming years as the available technologies and associated strategies continue to advance at a very high rate. Connected vehicle-highway technologies offer the potential for significantly enhancing all processes of transportation system management and have the potential for fundamental changes to how the transportation systems are managed and operated.

Slide 45: Questions

  1. What are the four basic functions of transportation management?
  2. Give examples of freeway management and arterial management applications.
  3. What are the types of surveillance systems and which type is required for ramp metering?
  4. List two issues associated with DMS applications and two issues associated with ramp metering.
  5. Is it true that adaptive signal control is expected to provide benefits under all conditions?
  6. List the benefits of emergency vehicle preemption.
  7. Discuss issues associated with data archiving.
  8. Give examples of potential connected vehicle applications in TMS.

Author Notes for Slide 45:

Answers:

  1. System state estimation, management strategy determination, management strategy execution, and management strategy evaluation/feedback.
  2. Freeway management: ramp metering, managed lane, variable speed limits, and information dissemination. Arterial management: signal control, rail-road preemption, emergency vehicle preemption, and transit signal priority.
  3. Point detectors AVI readers, AVL tracking, private sector data, CCTV cameras, and environmental sensor stations. Ramp metering requires point detectors.
  4. Ramp metering: mainline vs. ramp performance, impacts on other facilities, and public perception of adverse effects. DMS: message content, message format, and information credibility.
  5. It may not be able to provide benefits under saturated conditions with capacity constraints.
  6. Response time, safety, and stress level improvements.
  7. Resources and funding, central warehouse vs. virtual warehouse, data quality, data fusion, adequate documentation, accessibility, maintainability, and ease of use.
  8. ICM, weather-responsive management, signal control, signal information dissemination, priority and preemption, active traffic management, and automated highway applications.

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For more information, contact:

Michelle Noch
ITS Professional Capacity Building Program Manager
ITS Joint Program Office
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology (OST-R)
U.S. Department of Transportation
202-366-0278
Michelle.Noch@dot.gov

 

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