skip to main content

← Back to Module 5

ITS ePrimer Presentation

Module 5: ITS to Support Travelers

Slide 1:

Title Slide graphic with United States Department of Transportation logo on blue background

ITS ePrimer

Module 5: ITS to Support Travelers

ITS Professional Capacity Building Program

ITS Joint Program Office

U.S. Department of Transportation

Title Slide graphic on the bottom of the Slide with the logo of the United States Department of Transportation - Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology - Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office, next to the ITE Learning Hub logo, which is next to the Intelligent Transportation Systems - Professional Capacity Building logo

Author’s Slide 1 meeting notes below:

This module is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation’s ITS Professional Capacity Building (PCB) Program. The ITS PCB Program is in the ITS Joint Program Office (ITS JPO), within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology (OST-R).

Thank you for participating and we hope you find this module helpful.

Slide 2:


Headshot photo of Alex Skabardonis, Professor, University of California, Berkeley

Alex Skabardonis


University of California, Berkeley

Berkeley, CA, USA

Slide 3:

Learning Objectives

  • Learn the capabilities, features, and limitations, of ITS technologies for multimodal transportation
  • Understand deployment opportunities and constraints for ITS technologies for all travelers
  • Understand emerging and future trends in ITS technologies for all travelers

Author’s Slide 3 meeting notes below:

ITS technologies offer an array of applications and enhancements for multimodal transportation; from real time information to safety applications and driver conveniences. This updated module explores current and emerging applications that enhance traveler experience and safety.

Slide 4:


  • Traveler Information
  • Parking Information
  • Mobility on Demand
  • Mobility as a Service (MaaS)
  • Driver Assistance Systems
  • Traveler Comfort and Convenience
  • Personal Rapid Transit
  • Urban Aerial Mobility
  • Connected and Automated Vehicles

Author’s Slide 4 meeting notes below:

ITS systems and impacts:

Real-time travel information on mode, routing, arrival time, parking

Aggregation and integration of public and private modes and services

Drivers assistance systems to improve safety, comfort and convenience

Emerging transport modes: personal rapid transit and aerial vehicles

Emerging technologies: connectivity and automation

Slide 5:

Real Time Travel Information

Information types and impacts


  • Trip departure time
  • Mode of travel
  • Route choice


  • Change route
  • Change mode (if alternate mode with parking available)
  • Expected arrival times

Author’s Slide 5 meeting notes below:

  • Travel information can be pre-trip and/or en-route
  • Here shown the key impacts under each category
  • Note that options depend on the availability of alternate modes and routes

Slide 6:

Real Time Travel Information

Dissemination (1)

World Wide Web

  • Every state DOT offers traveler information website
  • Pre-trip information
  • Wide geographic area coverage
  • Images from CCTV cameras on real-time conditions

511 Phone System

  • Over 46 511 systems (include websites)
  • Highest usage under major events
    • Extreme weather
    • Major road closures

Author’s Slide 6 meeting notes below:

  • The Internet World Wide Web is the predominant form of traveler information
  • 511 systems provide free phone service
  • 511 include websites that can be customized for individual trips (Bay Area 511)

Slide 7:

Real Time Travel Information

Dissemination (2)

This a sample web site screenshot of San Francisco Bay Area 511. On the right of the image is a map of the San Francisco Bay Area. On this map, all major highways are color coded red, green and yellow to indicate the status of traffic flow. To the left of the map are side boxes that provide additional traffic information to viewers such as 511 Open Data, Alerts, 511 Phone, Transit, Carpool, and other related options. The top box contains major announcements, in this example a COVID-19 Transportation Recovery Status announcement. This figure is for general illustrative purposes only, as an example of travel and parking information services on the web. This is simply a screenshot, with no intent to go over in further detail.

San Francisco Bay Area 511

Author’s Slide 7 meeting notes below:

  • San Francisco Bay Area 511 Website screen shot
  • Color coded speed maps
  • Includes Transit Information

Slide 8:

Real Time Travel Information

Dissemination (3)

Variable Message Signs (VMS)

  • Expected travel times to destinations
  • Alerts on incidents, inclement weather, other events
  • Location important (prior to decision point)
  • Emergency Messages
    • AMBER alert
    • LEO alert
    • SILVER alert
This photograph is an example of how multimodal displays are used to disseminate parking information. This is a photo of an LED message board display that is mounted on a tall metal pole.The sign reads FWY-SJ 52 min, Caltrain 41 min, Train at 5:30.

VMS Implementation in Michigan DOT

Author’s Slide 8 meeting notes below:

  • VMS signs are implemented on most urban freeways
  • Typically located prior to major interchanges (for choosing alternate routes)
  • Compliance to messages depends on information accuracy from past experience
  • Shown a VMS in the San Francisco Bay Area Link to video on VMS usage (West Michigan TMC)

Slide 9:

Real Time Travel Information

Dissemination (4)

  • Mobile applications and social networking
  • Handheld devices
  • In-vehicle navigation systems
  • Email/text
  • TV/Radio
  • Highway Advisory Radio (HAR)
There are two example screenshot images. The first screenshot image shows a map of the San Francisco area from with streets and live traffic information. This figure is for general illustrative purposes only, as an example of travel and parking information services on the web. The second example screenshot image shows a map of the San Francisco area from with streets and live traffic information. This figure is for general illustrative purposes only, as an example of travel and parking information services on the web. These are simply screenshots, with no intent to go into further detail.

Author’s Slide 9 meeting notes below:

  • Predominant use of mobile apps and social networking signs
  • Screen shots of two apps
  • TV/radio and HAR mostly utilized in disadvantaged areas

Slide 10:

Real Time Travel Information


Improve Traveler Decision Making

  • Make accurate and timely decisions
    • Routing
    • Time of departure
    • Mode
    • Not make the trip
  • Sense of ‘self-control’ to traveler

Reduce Frustration and Irrational Behavior

  • Improve perceived level of service

Author’s Slide 10 meeting notes below:

Benefits to individual drivers

  • Depend on the availability of routes, modes for the particular trip
  • Depend on the flexibility of departure time
  • Drivers value more travel time reliability information, especially under incident conditions

Slide 11:

Real Time Travel Information


Spread or Reduce Peak Traffic Demand

  • Over space: alternative routes
  • Over time
  • Alternative modes
  • Eliminating discretionary trips

Field Evaluation Results

  • Traveler information users perceive time savings
  • In-vehicle travel time savings are small

Author’s Slide 11 meeting notes below:

Transportation system benefits due to traveler information

  • Note that the best route for the traveler may not be the best for the system
  • Highest benefits under non-recurrent congestion
  • All field tests show that travelers perceive time savings from traveler information systems
  • Independent measurements of travel times show small savings

Slide 12:

Real Time Travel Information

Data Sources (1)

  • Fixed sensors approximately 0.5 mile apart in each travel lane (e.g., loops, radar, video)
  • Event information from incident management teams, police patrols
  • CCTV
  • Probe vehicles
    • ETC transponders
    • Cell phones
    • Bluetooth readers

Author’s Slide 12 meeting notes below:

  • Data from fixed sensors are typically collected every 20-30 sec and aggregated every 5 minutes
  • Sensor failures create data errors and gaps
  • Information from mobile sources can fill gaps and provide information for highway links without fixed sensors through data processing and fusion
  • CCTV cameras are the primary source for incident verification

Slide 13:

Real Time Travel Information

Data Sources (2)

Data Fusion from Multiple Sources improves coverage and accuracy Crowdsourced data integrated with TMC data

This is an Illustration of data collection, fusion and utilization. It is a display made up of three segments next to each other and divided by two vertical yellow bars. On the left side of the slide, to the left of the first vertical yellow bar are five sources of data collection, stacked vertically. Each of these items have an arrow pointing from a photograph of each item towards the right and extending until it meets the yellow bar. The data sources from bottom to top are PNDs, Cell phones, Taxies, Truck Fleets, and Fixed Sensors. All arrows from the images to the yellow bar are blue, with the exception of the Fixed Sensors, which has a red arrow. In between the first and second vertical yellow bar is an area with two large arrows. The first gray arrow to the right of first yellow bar has a light blue rectangle overlaid on top of the gray arrow and is labeled “Collection.” This arrow then points to the second arrow directly to its right. On the second arrow is a dark blue rectangle on top of the arrow labeled “Fusion (Multiple sources – Various data).”  A dark blue dotted lined box encloses the data sources PNDs, Cell phones, Taxies, and Truck Fleets as well as their relative row space in the middle section of the illustration. To the right of the second vertical bar are three identically sized boxes outlined in dotted lines and stacked one on top of the other. Each box has a large blue arrow pointing right towards an image representing how the collected data is used. Each box numbered 1 through 3, starting with 1 at the bottom of the stack. A vertical yellow arrow extends the height of the illustration and points up to indicate the order in which to read the boxes. Box 1 is titled “Speed Information” with the large blue arrow pointing to an image of a highway traffic message board. Above box 1 is box 2. Box 2 is labeled “Traffic Operation.” The big blue arrow in this box points to an image of a multi-monitor control room. Above box 2 is box 3 labeled “Planning – PM.” The large blue arrow in this box points to a screen shot of traffic data analysis. Example screenshot capture of RITIS and Waze Data Integration showing a map from University of Maryland Center for Advanced Transportation Technology Laboratory with a map of the DC metro area with major roadways and various layers that can be toggled on and off such as future events, incidents and events, traffic cameras, radio scanners, road weather, and other related layers. A pull out box on the screen shows a collision incident on I-495. Additional incidents can be shown on sub-layers of the map as well as options for Waze incidents and events.

Author’s Slide 13 meeting notes below:

Illustration of data collection from multiple sources, data processing, and fusion and possible data uses including transportation planning (trends in volumes), traffic operations (control, incident management) and traveler information

Crowdsourced data can be integrated with TMC detector data to improve the accuracy of the incident detection algorithms (RITIS system and Waze Data Integration)

Slide 14:

Real Time Travel Information



  • Web
  • Mobile Applications
  • Station/Transit Stop Displays
  • In-Vehicle Displays


  • Maps/schedules
  • Expected arrivals real-time
  • Transit vehicle tracking (AVL)
  • On-line Trip Planner
This is a photograph of a digital transportation message display board. It is a black electronic device with a red LED display. It reads: Next bus in 9 min.

Author’s Slide 14 meeting notes below:

  • Most transit systems provide websites with maps, schedules and expected arrival times
  • Websites linked or part of the 511 websites
  • Station information of arrival times through audio/displays
  • Data
  • The Google Transit and the General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS)
  • Open source platform: Open Trip Planner

Slide 15:

Mobility on Demand (MOD)

  • MOD vision for safe, reliable travel for all users
  • MOD enables consumers to access mobility, goods, and services on demand by using shared mobility, delivery services, and public transportation solutions through an integrated and connected multimodal network
This figure contains a diagram showing Mobility on Demand (MOD) Stakeholders. The top of the figure shows the MOD stakeholders which are: Federal Government, State and Local Authorities, Public Transit Agencies, Transportation Operations and Logistic Providers, Transportation Managers, Apps and Mobile Services Providers, and the public. In the middle there is a gear shape figure that represents Multimodal Transportation Operations Management Decision Support System (DSS). To the left of the gear are 7 hexagons with one in the middle which says MOD Marketplace Supply Side. The 6 hexagons around it are: public transportation services, non-public transportation services, goods delivery, transportation facilities and vehicles, transportation operations, and transportation management/information systems. To the right of the gear are 7 hexagons with one in the middle which says Demand Side. The 6 hexagons around it are: Travelers, Goods, time of ride/delivery request, origin-destination request, occupancy and vehicle type/size, and user needs and preferences. At the bottom of the figure there are 4 boxes that represent MOD Enablers which are identified as: Business Models and Partnerships, Infrastructure, Policies and Regulations, and Emerging Technologies. Under each enabler are examples as follows: Business Models and Partnerships: strategic partnerships, financing, and incentives. Infrastructure: land use, built environment, and transportation infrastructure. Policies and Regulations: equity considerations, safety considerations, mobility issues, and standardization. Emerging Technologies: wireless networks, GPS/Sensors, Big data and predictive analytics.

Author’s Slide 15 meeting notes below:

MOD is a multimodal program to study emerging mobility services, public transportation networks and operations, and goods delivery services.

MOD is based on the principle that transportation is a commodity where modes have economic values that are distinguishable in terms of cost, journey time, wait time, number of connections, convenience, and other attributes.

FHWA, “Mobility on Demand: Operational Concept Report,” Report FHWA-JPO-18-611, Washington DC, September 2017.

Slide 16:

Mobility as a Service (MaaS)

  • Mobility aggregation and submission services
  • Access to several transportation modes

Transportation Network Companies (TNC)

  • Offer on-demand rides by private vehicles
  • Short trips in dense areas during off-peak periods

Alternative Transit Services

  • Paratransit, microtransit on demand transit
  • Partnerships with TNC
  • First & last mile, on call-and ride
Example screenshot from smartphone application for TNCs (Transportation Network Companies). The example shows a map of downtown DC with various icons of cars and a search box with the text “Enter pickup point” at the top.

Author’s Slide 16 meeting notes below:

Screenshots of smart phone applications for companies offering on demand rides

Efforts underway to develop GTFS-Flex as a data standard for on-demand services that may be operated by a transit agency or TNC.

Slide 17:

Mobility as a Service (MaaS)


  • Car availability without car ownership
  • Designed for occasional car users
  • Provided by private companies through membership
  • Benefits
    • Reduction in auto ownership, VMT
    • Reduction in fuel consumption/emissions


  • Bikesharing systems integrated into existing transportation systems
  • Bicycle stations often at transit hubs
  • Complete street designs improve bicycle travel and safety

Author’s Slide 17 meeting notes below:

  • There are 1.5 million vehicles and more than 15,000 available in the United States. (2018)
  • Web-based or smart phone applications permit the reservation of vehicles at selected locations, choice of vehicles (gasoline or electric), parking at destination, payment, and other transactions.

The availability of one-way trips provides a first-mile and last-mile access to transit stops

There are more than 30 million bikesharing users in the United States. Bikesharing systems increased mobility, increased flexibility, low implementation and operational costs, increased health benefits, and greater environmental awareness.

Slide 18:

Parking Information

Public Agencies/Operators

  • Maps with Parking Facilities
  • Information on the Web: location, space availability

Private Service Providers

Web / Mobile Applications

  • Real-time Parking Availability
  • Online Reservation/Payment

Advanced Systems (SF, DC)

  • Real-time data on parking occupancy
  • Parking pricing set to maximize utilization
  • Information on Web and smartphones
This example screenshot image shows a map of the San Francisco area with streets and live parking information. The following descriptive notes indicate that this figure is for general illustrative purposes only, as an example of travel and parking information services on the web. This is simply a screenshot showing parking availability and pricing for an example location based on time of day.

San Francisco parking

Author’s Slide 18 meeting notes below:

  • Deployment of wireless sensing enables accurate information on parking availability
  • Parking pricing schemes try to maximize utilization and minimize block circling
  • Typical max occupancy 85 percent

Slide 19:

Parking Information

Multimodal Information

  • Driving Times
  • Parking Availability at Transit Stations
  • Transit Information
    • Departure/Arrival Times
  • Influences Mode Choice
    • Travel Time Savings
    • Perceived Congestion
This photograph is an example of how multimodal displays are used to disseminate parking information. This is a photo of an LED message board display that is mounted under a sign for BART and CALTRAIN which reads Parking Available. This photograph is an example of how multimodal displays are used to disseminate parking information. This is a photo of an LED message board display that is mounted on a tall metal pole. The sign reads FWY-SJ 52 min, Caltrain 41 min, Train at 5:30.

Author’s Slide 19 meeting notes below:

  • Field tests show that drivers can park and ride transit if the expected travel time is shorter than drive time
  • 8 percent of drivers switched modes when the time savings were greater than 20 minutes
  • Source:
    Mortazavi, A. et. al, “Evaluation of Displaying Transit Information on Changeable Message Signs,” Research Report UCB-ITS-CWP-2009-2, University of California Berkeley, September 2009.

Slide 20:

Driver Assistance Systems

  • Intersection Collision Warning Systems (CWS)
  • Pedestrian Automatic Emergency Breaking Systems
  • Lane Departure Warning System
  • In Vehicle Vision Enhancements
  • Blind-Spot Detection Information Systems (BLIS)
  • Wrong Way Driving Warning
  • Forward Collision Warning (FCM) Systems
  • Rollover Warning Systems
  • Driver Impairment Monitoring
  • Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC)
    Adjust speed to maintain preset headway (minimum 1 min)

Advanced Driver Assistance System 5QVM

Author’s Slide 20 meeting notes below:

  • These systems designed for improving safety
  • Developed mostly by auto manufacturers
  • Some systems for busses and commercial vehicles developed under the USDOT Integrated Vehicle-Based safety System (IVBSS)

Slide 21:

Traveler Comfort and Convenience

In-Vehicle Navigation and Route Guidance Systems

  • GPS based
  • Turn-by-turn directions
  • May include real time traffic information
  • Additional Information (Parking, Yellow Pages)
  • Autonomous or through Subscription

Transit Fare Payment Systems

  • Smart Cards for multiple transit lines/agencies
  • Mobile Phones
  • Mobility Payment Integration (MPI): Shared payment media transit + mobility providers (TNCs, bikeshare, microtransit)

Author’s Slide 21 meeting notes below:

  • Systems designed to ease the travel experience
  • Most of the basic functions of in-vehicle systems are available on smartphones
  • Transit payment systems for multiple agencies with complicated fare structures take considerable time to implement due to technical and institutional constraints

As of 2018, 34 locations around the country had deployed automated fare collection (AFC) in their transit systems. Eighteen of these systems are implementing mobility payment integration (MPI) systems to incorporate shared payment media across transit agencies and mobility providers (bikeshare, TNCs, and microtransit).

USDOT Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, “Mobility Payment Integration: State of the Practice Scan,” FTA Report No 0143, October 2019.

Slide 22:

Traveler Comfort and Convenience

Electronic Toll Collection (ETC)

  • Toll paid though transponders without stopping
  • ETC increases toll lane capacity four times
  • ETC transponders may operate across States/facilities
  • ETC mandatory for congestion pricing implementation
  • Open Road Tolling (ORT): toll collection at highway speeds
    • Higher capacity
    • Improved safety
    • Reduced fuel and emissions

Author’s Slide 22 meeting notes below:

  • Drivers without transponders are billed based on license-plate recognition technology
  • Open road tolling (ORT) does not utilize toll booths
  • ORT reduce accidents by 24-60 percent based on field studies
  • Increasingly tolled facilities are converted to only ETC/ORT

Slide 23:

Personal Rapid Transit (PRT)

Alternative to Conventional Transit in Low-Density Areas

  • Small driverless vehicles (up to 15 passengers)
  • Dedicated tracks/offline stations
  • High capacity (2-second headways)
  • Point-to-Point service/passenger comfort

Feasibility Studies

  • “Last Mile” solution for transit systems
  • Major employment centers/business parks
  • San Jose International Airport-ground access

Author’s Slide 23 meeting notes below:

Concept originated in late 1950s with numerous designs in late 1960s and early 1970s

Morgantown at West Virginia University system has been implemented and is in continuous operation since 1975 with 99 percent reliability

  • Capacity (min headway) is constrained by requirement to avoid collision under all cases (brick-wall)
  • Typical speeds of 30 mph (reported speeds up to 150 mph)
  • Recent implementations of PRT
    • Short distances, small (personalized) vehicles
    • Average waiting time 10 sec (ULTRA system)

Slide 24:

Personal Rapid Transit (PRT)

Recent Implementations

  • ULTRA Heathrow Airport (2.4 miles, 21 vehicles)
  • 2getthere Abu Dhabi (1.1 mile, 13 vehicles)
This photo is another example of Personal Rapid Transit (PRT). It shows the recently implemented ULTRA Heathrow Airport Personal Rapid Transit system (PRT). There are two PRT vehicles side-by-side with smooth curved edges, and vertically long tinted windows. The vehicles are purple at the bottom, and gradually fade into white at the top.

ULTRA PRT system

Author’s Slide 24 meeting notes below:


Overview of PRT systems and links to PRT websites. Maintained by J. B. Schneider.

Cottrell W.D. and O. Mikosza, “New-Generation Personal Rapid Transit Technologies: Overview and Comparison,” Transportation Research Record, Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2042, Washington DC, 2008, pp. 101-108.

Slide 25:

Urban Aerial Mobility

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) Commercial Applications

  • Package Delivery
  • Mapping and Surveying
  • Infrastructure Inspections
  • Surveillance

Passenger Transport

  • VTOL airplanes
  • “Flying Taxis”

Author’s Slide 25 meeting notes below:

The commercial UAV U.S. market expected to grow to about $13.6B by 2025.

Safe and cost-efficient passenger carrying UAVs for the public appear to be into the future subject to market, land use, and regulations.

Potential scenarios:

Short-term passenger transport VTOL (vertical take-off and landing) aircraft service along specific “air routes”

Longer term VSTOL aircraft serving hub operations

Air Taxi service further into the future

Cohen A.P., S. Shaheen, E.M. Farrar, “Urban Air Mobility: History, Ecosystem, Market Potential and Challenges,” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Volume 22 (9), September 2021

Slide 26:

Vehicles, Internet, Phone and the Future

Cooperative Vehicle-

Infrastructure Systems

Vehicle-to vehicle (V2V)

  • Communications
    • DSRC
    • Mobile devices
  • Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC)
    • Shorter gaps
  • Active Safety Systems
    • Reduce crashes by 80 percent
    • Driver Alerts (Queue Warning)
This figure contains a bar chart indicating the Time-Gap Setting Usage vs Cruise Control System Time-Gap Setting(s). The vertical axis is labeled Time-Gap Setting Usage and ranges from 0%-100% and the horizontal axis is labeled Cruise Control System Time-Gap Setting (s), is broken into sections for CACC and ACC, and has bars located at 0.6, 0.7, 0.9, 1.1 for the CACC section and 1.1, 1.6, and 2.2 for the ACC section. The values in the CACC section for 0.6 indicate 77% for Male and 26% for Female; 0.7 is 15.9% for Male and 40% for Female, 0.9 is 4.4% for Male and 12% for Female; and 1.1 is 3.0% for Male and 22% for Female. In the ACC section, the values for 1.1 indicate 60% for Male and 41% for Female; 1.6 is 20% for Male and 21% for Female; 2.2 is 19% for Male and 38% for Female.

Author’s Slide 26 meeting notes below:

Communications media

Dedicated Short range Communications (DSRC) and cellular networks depending on the applications

  • Minimal exchange of information: location, heading, speed

CACC: Field tests shown that drivers comfortable in accepting shorter gaps from 1.5 sec under ACC to 0.7 sec under CACC

Shorter gaps increase freeway capacity, from 2,000 veh/hr/lane to 3600 veh/hr/lane subject to vehicle penetration

Nowakowski, C., et al. Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control: Testing Drivers’ Choices of Following Distances. California PATH Research Report for FHWA Exploratory Advanced Research Program Cooperative Agreement DTFH61-07-H-00038. January 2011.

Slide 27:

Vehicles, Internet, Phone, and the Future

Connected Vehicles (V2V)--Queue Warning

This is an illustration of a queue warning under Connected Vehicles V2V communications. There is a large overhead photograph of a highway interchange. On the upper left side of the photograph is a large gray box with a yellow diamond traffic sign that reads “Slow Traffic Ahead” with a smaller yellow rectangular sign that reads “On Exit.” Below the gray box is a large red text box that reads “Auditory & Visual Alerts” written in bold black letters. On the photograph, light yellow lines are drawn on top of all the road travel paths. Green dots are drawn along each yellow path. A thick red line is drawn over the top of a major highway on-ramp. A red arrow is pointing at the thick line from the right. Next to the arrow is a text box that reads “Bottleneck Traffic Queue Backup into mainline.” At the bottom of the thick red line, it continues as a green dotted line. A green arrow points to the dotted line from the right with a text box next to it reading “Limited Visibility Due to Roadway Geometry.” To the left of the green line is a large red text box with bold text titled “Alert Drivers Approaching Upstream” with an arrow point diagonally down to the bottom of the photo on the road.

Author’s Slide 27 meeting notes below:

Illustration of Queue Warning under Connected Vehicles V2V Communications Source:

Nowakowski, C., et al., “SafeTrip 21 Initiative: Networked Traveler Foresighted Driving Field Experiment Final Report,” Research Report UCB-ITS-PRR-2011-05, University of California Berkeley, June 2011

Slide 28:

Vehicles, Internet, Phone and the Future

Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure Systems

Vehicle-to Infrastructure (V2I)

  • SPaT Message
  • Applications
    • Safety
    • Mobility
      • Improved traffic signal control
      • Dynamic route advisory
      • Environment
        • Speed advisory for minimum fuel/emissions

Author’s Slide 28 meeting notes below:

V2I: Ability to wirelessly exchange information about vehicles (position, speed) and infrastructure

Example: Status of the traffic light: Signal phase and timing (SPaT) Applications:

Yellow extension to avoid red light running

Adaptive control of signal settings (green times and offsets) to minimize delay based on real-time demands and O-D patterns

Given signal status and road characteristics calculate vehicle speed to minimize fuel consumption and emissions

Slide 29:

Vehicles, Internet, Phone, and the Future

Vehicle-to Infrastructure (V2I)

Dynamic Speed Advisory (Source: BMW)

SPaT message transmitted to the vehicle

Signal status and recommended speed on driver speedometer

This graphical illustration is an example of V2I Communication SPaT message, showing general examples of advisory systems inside vehicles indicating “Stop Ahead,” for example, and speed recommendations. The following descriptive notes are from the author. This figure is for general illustrative purposes only. This image deals with in-vehicle systems that provide information and advice to drivers on speed, following distance and other operating characteristics. They can be described without pictures as systems integrated into the vehicle’s instrument panel to provide visual (through different colors) alert and advice to drivers. This figure is for general illustrative purposes, and shows the BMW In-Vehicle Driver Speed Advisory system. This image deals with in-vehicle systems that provide information and advice to drivers on speed, following distance and other operating characteristics. They can be described without pictures as systems integrated into the vehicle’s instrument panel to provide visual (through different colors) alert and advice to drivers. For example, the recommended speed for minimum fuel consumption is shown as green in the car’s speedometer.)

Author’s Slide 29 meeting notes below:


ITS JPO Connected vehicle initiative:

BMW of North America, “Advanced Traffic Signal Control,” Final Report, prepared for the FHWA Exploratory Advanced Research Project, July 2012.

Slide 30:

Automated Vehicles (AV)

Levels of Automation

This figure contains an illustration with the Automated Vehicles Level of Automation, ranging on the left from 0 - No Automation (Zero autonomy; the driver performs all driving tasks), 1 - Driver Assistance (Vehicle is controlled by the driver, but some driving assist features may be included in the vehicle design), 2 - Partial Automation (Vehicle has combined automated functions, like acceleration and steering, but the driver must remain engaged with the driving task and monitor the environment at all times), 3 - Conditional Automation (Driver is a necessity, but is not required to monitor the environment. The driver must be ready to take control of the vehicle at all times with notice), 4 - High Automation (The vehicle is capable of performing all driving functions under certain conditions. The driver may have the option to control the vehicle), and 5 - Full Automation (The vehicle is capable of performing all driving functions under all conditions. The driver may have the option to control the vehicle).
  • More than 30 private companies developing AV technology
  • Emphasis on Level 4
  • Waymo is the only automated private vehicle in operation
  • Nuro is an AV mini car for package deliveries in neighborhoods

Author’s Slide 30 meeting notes below:

SAE Levels of automation

0: no automation 5: all tasks automated

USDOT, NHTSA, “Automated Driving Systems 2.0: A Vision for Safety,” DOT HS 812 442, September 2017

Information on Waymo autonomous vehicles:

Information on NURO autonomous vehicles:

Slide 31:


Traveler Information

  • Predominant use of mobile devices for data sources and information dissemination
  • Multimodal applications

Mobility on Demand (MOD)

  • Safe, reliable travel for all users
  • Connected multimodal network
  • Mobility as a Service (MaaS)

Emerging Applications

  • Driver safety and convenience systems
  • Connected Vehicles Technologies (V2V, V2I)
  • Automated Vehicles

Author’s Slide 31 meeting notes below:

Real-time travel information assist travelers prior to their trip or while end route. Mobile devices are predominantly used for data sources and information dissemination

Mobility on Demand (MOD) is a framework to enable consumers to access mobility, goods, and services on demand by using public transportation facilities, shared mobility, delivery services through an integrated and connected multi-modal network.

Emerging vehicle technologies focus on cooperative vehicle infrastructure systems, vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) communications, and automated vehicles (AV).

Return to top ↑

Stay Connected

twitter logo
facebook logo
linkedin logo
youtube logo
U.S. DOT instagram logo

For inquiries regarding the ITS PCB Program, please contact the USDOT Point of Contact below.
J.D. Schneeberger
Program Manager, Knowledge and Technology Transfer

U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) | 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE | Washington, DC 20590 | 800.853.1351
U.S. DOT | | Privacy Policy | FOIA | Budget and Performance | No Fear Act
Cummings Act Notices | Ethics | Web Policies & Notices | Vulnerability Disclosure Policy | Accessibility