ITS ePrimer Presentation
Module 5: Personal Transportation
(Note: The following PowerPoint presentation is a supplement to the module.)
Slide 1: ITS ePrimer Module 5: Personal Transportation
Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office Research and Innovative Technology Administration, USDOT
Author Notes for Slide 1:
This is the title slide for Module 5.
The following slides are in this order:
- Instructor information
- Learning Objectives
- Content-related slide(s)
- Summary (what we have learned)
This module is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation's ITS Professional Capacity Building (PCB) Program. The ITS PCB Program is part of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration's ITS Joint Program Office.
Thank you for participating and we hope you find this module helpful.
Slide 2: Instructor
Research Engineer Kittelson & Associates, Inc. Oakland, CA, USA
University of California, Berkeley
Berkeley, CA, USA
Slide 3: Learning Objectives
- Learn of capabilities, features, and limitations of ITS technologies for personal transportation
- Understand deployment opportunities and constraints
- Understand how ITS personal transportation applications impact the user and the transportation system in terms of mobility and accessibility
- Understand emerging and future trends in ITS technologies for personal transportation
Slide 4: Real-Time Travel Information
Information types and impacts
- Trip departure time
- Mode of travel
- Route choice
- Change route
- Change mode (if alternate mode with parking available)
- Expected arrival times
Author Notes for Slide 4:
Travel information can be pre-trip and/or en route
This slide shows the key impacts under each category
Note that options depend on the availability of alternate modes and routes
FHWA, Real-Time Traveller Information Program,
Slide 5: Real-Time Travel Information
- Every State DOT offers traveler information Web site
- Pre-trip information
- Wide geographic area coverage
- Images from CCTV cameras on real-time conditions
- 511 Phone System
- More than 40 511 systems
- Highest usage under major events
- Extreme weather
- Major road closures
Author Notes for Slide 5:
The Internet is the predominant form of traveler information 511 systems provide free phone service
511 include Web sites that can be customized for individual trips (Bay Area 511)
Slide 6: Real-Time Travel Information
San Francisco Bay Area 511
(Extended Text Description: This a sample web site screenshot of San Francisco Bay Area 511. On the right of the image is a map of the San Francisco Bay Area. On this map, all major highways are color coded red, green and yellow to indicate the status of traffic flow. To the left of the map are side boxes that provide additional traffic information to viewers. The top box contains major closure announcements, below that, "Latest News & Construction," and below that on the bottom, "511 Driving Times." The following additional descriptive notes are from the author: This figure is for general illustrative purposes only, as an example of travel and parking information services on the web. This is simply a screenshot, with no intent to go over in further detail.)
Author Notes for Slide 6:
San Francisco Bay Area 511 Web site screen shot Color-coded speed maps Includes transit information
Slide 7: Real-Time Travel Information
Changeable Message Signs (CMS)
CMS Implementation in Michigan DOT
Author Notes for Slide 7:
This is a video clip showing the implementation of CMS by Michigan DOT
Source: Michigan DOT
Slide 8: Real-Time Travel Information
- Highway Advisory Radio (HAR)
- Private Information Providers
- In-vehicle navigation
- Handheld devices
- Social Networking Media
Author Notes for Slide 8:
Slide lists other forms of information dissemination
Increased usage of social networking media and mobile applications through smartphones
Increased connectivity allows information sharing among drivers as part of the social networking media (example WAZE)
Slide 9: Real-Time Travel Information
Increasing use of mobile applications and social networking
(Extended Text Description: The following descriptive notes are from the author. Please also see the Author Notes below for additional relevant information for this slide. This example screenshot image shows a map of the San Francisco area from http://maps.google.com with streets and live traffic information. The following descriptive notes are from the author: This figure is for general illustrative purposes only, as an example of travel and parking information services on the web. This is simply a screenshot, with no intent to go over in further detail. Please also see the Author Notes below for additional relevant information for this slide.)
(Extended Text Description: The following descriptive notes are from the author. Please also see the Author Notes below for additional relevant information for this slide. This example screenshot image shows a map of the San Francisco area from http://www.waze.com/livemap with streets and live traffic information. The following descriptive notes are from the author: This figure is for general illustrative purposes only, as an example of travel and parking information services on the web. This is simply a screenshot, with no intent to go over in further detail.)
Author Notes for Slide 9:
Recent findings indicate that social networking sites for route-planning mobile enriches the travel experience.
Source: New Cities Foundation, "Connected Commuting: Research and Analysis on the New Cities Foundation Task Force in San Jose," http://www.newcitiesfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/New-Cities-Foundation-Connected-Commuting-Full-Report.pdf, 2012.
Slide 10: Real-Time Travel Information
(Extended Text Description: This bar graph shows the methods of travel information dissemination based on the USDOT 2011 ITS deployment survey. Units along the x-axis at the bottom of the page go from 0-100 in intervals of 10. The x-axis is labeled "% Freeway Operation Agencies." The y-axis shows the methods in which travel information is disseminated. Dark blue bars run horizontally from the y-axis. The following numerical values are estimates. The original chart spreadsheet data was not available to the author. The estimated percentage of freeway operating agencies read as follows from the top of the y-axis to the bottom: Webpage 89%; CMS 85%; 511 67%; HAR 61%; Email to Desktop 49%; Email to mobile device 47%; Posting on Twitter/Social Networks 40%; Subscription Service 32%; Other Phone 19%; Other 18%.)
Author Notes for Slide 10:
This chart shows the methods of travel information dissemination based on the USDOT 2011 ITS deployment survey.
Data are from 122 freeway operating agencies.
Source: USDOT RITA, "Intelligent Transportation Systems Benefits, Costs, Deployment, and Lessons Learned Desk Reference: 2011 Update., Final Report FHWA-JPO-11-140, September 2011.
Slide 11: Real-Time Travel Information
- Fixed sensors approximately 0.5 mile apart in each travel lane (e.g., loops, radar, video)
- Event information from incident management teams, police patrols
- Probe vehicles
- ETC transponders
- Cell phones
- Bluetooth readers
Author Notes for Slide 11:
Data from fixed sensors are typically collected every 30 seconds and aggregated every five minutes.
Sensor failures create data errors and gaps.
Information from mobile sources can fill gaps and provide information for highway links without fixed sensors through data processing and fusion.
CTV cameras are the primary source for incident verification.
Slide 12: Real-Time Travel Information
(Extended Text Description: This is an Illustration of data collection, fusion and utilization. It is a display made up of three segments next to each other and divided by two vertical yellow bars. On the left side of the slide, to the left of the first vertical yellow bar are five sources of data collection, stacked vertically. Each of these items have an arrow pointing from a photograph of each item towards the right and extending until it meets the yellow bar. The data sources from bottom to top are PNDs, Cell phones, Taxies, Truck Fleets, and Fixed Sensors. All arrows from the images to the yellow bar are blue, with the exception of the Fixed Sensors, which has a red arrow. In between the first and second vertical yellow bar is an area with two large arrows. The first gray arrow to the right of first yellow bar has a light blue rectangle overlaid on top of the gray arrow and is labeled "Collection." This arrow then points to the second arrow directly to its right. On the second arrow is a dark blue rectangle on top of the arrow labeled "Fusion (Multiple sources – Various data)." A dark blue dotted lined box encloses the data sources PNDs, Cell phones, Taxies, and Truck Fleets as well as their relative row space in the middle section of the illustration. To the right of the second vertical bar are three identically sized boxes outlined in dotted lines and stacked one on top of the other. Each box has a large blue arrow pointing right towards an image representing how the collected data is used. Each box numbered 1 through 3, starting with 1 at the bottom of the stack. A vertical yellow arrow extends the height of the illustration and points up to indicate the order in which to read the boxes. Box 1 is titled "Speed Information" with the large blue arrow pointing to an image of a highway traffic message board. Above box 1 is box 2. Box 2 is labeled "Traffic Operation." The big blue arrow in this box points to an image of a multi-monitor control room. Above box 2 is box 3 labeled "Planning – PM." The large blue arrow in this box points to a screen shot of traffic data analysis. For more relevant information on this graph, please see the Author Notes below.)
Author Notes for Slide 12:
Illustration of data collection from multiple sources, data processing and fusion, and possible data uses including transportation planning (trends in volumes), traffic operations (control, incident management), and traveler information.
USDOT National Performance Management Research Data Set (NPMRDS)
Slide 13: Real-Time Travel Information
Improve Traveler Decision Making
- Make accurate and timely decisions
- Time of departure
- Not make the trip
- Sense of "self control" to traveler
Reduce Frustration and Irrational Behavior
- Improve perceived level of service
Author Notes for Slide 13:
Benefits to individual driver:
- Depend on the availability of routes, modes for the particular trip
- Depend on the flexibility of departure time
- Drivers value more travel time reliability information especially under incident conditions
Slide 14: Real-Time Travel Information
Spread or Reduce Peak Traffic Demand
- Over space: alternative routes
- Over time
- Alternative modes
- Eliminating discretionary trips
Field Evaluation Results
- Traveler information users perceived time savings
- In-vehicle travel time savings are small
Author Notes for Slide 14:
Transportation system benefits due to traveler information:
- Note that the best route for the traveler may not be the best for the system
- Highest benefits under non-recurrent congestion
- All field tests show that travelers perceive time savings from traveler information systems
- Independent measurements of travel times show small savings
Slide 15: Real-Time Travel Information
- Mobile Applications
- Station/Transit Stop Displays
- In-vehicle Displays
- Expected arrivals real-time
- Transit vehicle tracking (AVL)
- Online Trip Planner
Author Notes for Slide 15:
Most transit systems provide Web sites with maps, schedules, and expected arrival times
Web sites linked or part of the 511 Web sites
Station information of arrival times through audio/displays
Automated vehicle location (AVL) systems primary source of data
Source: USDOT RITA, "Traveler Information Systems and Wayfinding Technologies in Transit Systems," Report FTA-MA-26-7998-2011.1, May 2011.
Slide 16: Parking Information
- Maps with Parking Facilities
- Information on the Web: location/characteristics
Private Service Providers
- Real-time Parking Availability
- Online Reservation/Payment
(Extended Text Description: This example screenshot image shows a map of the San Francisco area from http://sfpark.org with streets and live parking information. The following descriptive notes are from the author: This figure is for general illustrative purposes only, as an example of travel and parking information services on the web. This is simply a screenshot, with no intent to go over in further detail. Please also see the Author Notes below for additional relevant information for this slide.)
City of San Francisco: Parking Information Web site
Author Notes for Slide 16:
Deployment of wireless sensing enables accurate information on parking availability Parking pricing schemes try to maximize utilization and minimize block circling
Slide 17: Parking Information
- Driving Times
- Parking Availability at Transit Stations
- Transit Information
- Influences Mode Choice
- Travel Time Savings
- Perceived Congestion
Author Notes for Slide 18:
Field tests show that drivers will park and ride transit if the expected travel time is shorter than drive time.
8% of drivers switched modes when the time savings were greater than 20 minutes.
Source: Mortazavi, A., et al., "Evaluation of Displaying Transit Information on Changeable Message Signs," Research Report UCB-ITS-CWP-2009-2, University of California Berkeley, September 2009.
Slide 18: Driver Assistance Systems
- Night Vision
- Adaptive Cruise Control
- Collision Warning
- Collision Avoidance
- Front collision
- Lane keeping
- Precision Docking
- Precise stopping at transit stops
- Reduces passenger boarding and alighting times
- Driver Impairment Monitoring
- On-Board Monitoring for Commercial Vehicles
Author Notes for Slide 18:
These systems designed for improving safety Developed mostly by auto manufacturers
Some systems for buses and commercial vehicles developed under the USDOT Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety System (IVBSS)
Slide 19: Driver Assistance Systems
Advanced Driver Assistance System
Precision Docking - Real World Demonstration
Author Notes for Slide 19:
- Driver Assistance system developed at California PATH UC Berkeley
- Precision Docking and Lane Assist
Developed by California PATH
Source: Tan H-S, et al., "Field Demonstration and Tests of Lane Assist/Guidance and Precision Docking Technology," California PATH Research Report UCB-ITS-PRR-2009-12, January 2009.
Slide 20: Driver Assistance Systems
Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC)
Conventional cruise control + radar sensors
Adjust speed to maintain a preset headway (min. 1 sec)
Cooperative ACC (CACC)
ACC systems + wireless data communications among vehicles
- Allows adoption of shorter gaps
- Potential to increase lane capacity
Author Notes for Slide 20:
ACC improves safety and convenience.
Cooperative ACC: Field tests show that drivers comfortable in accepting shorter gaps from 1.5 sec under ACC to 0.7 sec under CACC.
Slide 21: Driver Assistance Systems
Lane Capacity vs. CACC Market Penetration
(Extended Text Description: This chart illustrates lane capacity increase as a function of CACC market penetration. The y-axis on the left side of the page is titled "Lane Flow (vphl)." The y-axis is scaled from 0-4500 vphl in 500 vphl intervals. Along the x-axis on the bottom of the graph is the % of CACC adoption going from 0-100% in intervals of 10%. Vertical split colored bars run from every ten percentage points. Each bar has a bottom blue section and an upper purple section. A key located at the top of the graph indicates that the purple represents "With addition of 'Here I Am' Vehicle ("Vehicle Awareness Devices"). The following numerical values are estimates. The original chart spreadsheet data was not available to the author. The first value at each percentage CACC represents lane capacity without "Here I am" vehicles, and the second value represents the lane flow with the "Here I am" vehicles: 10% CACC 2050 2100; 20% CACC 2100 2250; 30% CACC 2150 2400; 40% CACC 2250 2500; 50% CACC 2400 2750; 60% CACC 2500 2900; 70% CACC 2600 3050; 80% CACC 3000 3400; 90% CACC 3400 3600; 100% CACC 4000 4000.)
Author Notes for Slide 21:
The adoption of shorter following gaps leads to higher capacity per travel lane
This chart illustrates the capacity increase as a function of CACC market penetration
100% market penetration can essentially double the traffic capacity
Source: Nowakowski, C., et al., "Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control: Testing Drivers' Choices of Following Distance," California PATH Research Report UCB-ITS-PRR-2010-39, UC Berkeley, November 2010.
Slide 22: Driver Assistance Systems
Collision Warning (CW)
Available/Planned in Private Automobiles Operational on Transit Systems
- Forward CW
- Samtrans (San Mateo Bay Area)
- Rear Impact CW
- Lane Change/Merge CW
(Extended Text Description: The photograph is an example of a driver assistance system. The image shows a man driving a city bus while in traffic. On the photo, there are two text boxes. One first text box says "LED Banks", and has two red arrows coming from each side of the box pointing to two vertical red led displays that are installed on both sides of the front windshield. The second text box is below the first text box. It reads "Sensitivity & Dimmer knobs" with a red arrow pointing to a small knob that is just to the right of the steering wheel.)
Author Notes for Slide 22:
Several collision warning systems under development by auto manufacturers Some available already in high end models
The slide lists operational collision warning systems developed for transit vehicles under USDOT sponsorship
Findings show that drivers become more conservative in their driving following the CW system implementation
Source: California PATH Program & Carnegie Mellon University - Robotics Institute, "Transit Integrated Collision Warning System—Volume II: Field Evaluation." Research Report, UCB-ITS-PRR-2007-20, University of California Berkeley, November 2007.
Slide 23: Driver Assistance Systems
Technology to monitor driving performance and physiological factors
- Ocular measuresimage processing, eye-tracking
- Doppler radar illumination of face/body
- Head movement monitoring using capacitor plates
- Stereo image processing of eyes/face/head
- Lane-keeping and steering input patterns
Author Notes for Slide 23:
Several in vehicle devices (cameras, radar/lidar) exist to monitor the movements of drivers and sense impairment.
Slide 24: Driver Assistance Systems
On-Board Monitoring for Commercial Vehicles developed for FMCSA
- Speed Selection
- Following Distance
- Attention (Inattention)
(Extended Text Description: Series of images of Driver Assistance System showing examples of recommended speed, speed limit, road conditions and lane departure indicators. The following descriptive notes are from the author. Please also see the Author Notes below for additional relevant information for this slide. This figure is for general illustrative purposes only. This image deals with in-vehicle systems that provide information and advice to drivers on speed, following distance and other operating characteristics. They can be described without pictures as systems integrated into the vehicle's instrument panel to provide visual (through different colors) alert and advice to drivers. For example, the recommended speed for minimum fuel consumption is shown as green in the car's speedometer.)
Author Notes for Slide 24:
This prototype system was developed with off-the-self components for the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA).
Warnings are provided for lane keeping, following headway, and following distance plus qualitative measures of inattention and fatigue.
A follow-up 200 vehicle field test has been planned by FMCSA.
Source: Misener, J. A., et al., "Onboard Monitoring and Reporting for Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety," Report No. FMCSA-RRT-07-030, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, Washington, DC, 2007.
Slide 25: Traveler Comfort and Convenience
In-Vehicle Navigation and Route Guidance Systems
- Turn-by-turn directions
- May include real-time traffic information
- Additional Information (Parking, Yellow Pages)
- Autonomous or through subscription
Transit Fare Payment Systems
- Magnetic cards
- Smart cards for multiple transit lines/agencies
- Mobile phones
Author Notes for Slide 25:
These systems are designed to ease the travel experience.
Most of the basic functions of in-vehicle systems are available on smartphones.
Smart transit payment systems for multiple agencies with complicated fare structures take considerable time to implement due to technical and institutional constraints.
Slide 26: Traveler Comfort and Convenience
Electronic Toll Collection (ETC)
- Toll paid though transponders without stopping
- ETC increases toll lane capacity 4 times
- ETC transponders may operate across states/facilities
- ETC mandatory for congestion pricing implementation
Open Road Tolling (ORT): toll collection at highway speeds
- Higher capacity
- Improved safety
- Reduced fuel and emissions
Author Notes for Slide 26:
Drivers without transponders are billed based on license plate recognition technology
Open road tolling (ORT) does not utilize toll booths
ORT reduces accidents by 24-60% based on field studies
Increasingly tolled facilities are converted to only ETC/ORT
Slide 27: Traveler Comfort and Convenience
Mobile applications for ride-share services
(Extended Text Description: This image is an example of mobile applications that are used for ride-share services Uber and Lyft. This image shows a screenshot of a smartphone application for hiring ride-share services. On the smartphone screen is a road map of a section of San Francisco. On the map is a green circle to indicate the user's location. Surrounding the green circle are car icons indicating the location of the nearest ride-share car.)
Author Notes for Slide 27:
Uber - www.uber.com. Operational in over 300 cities around the world
More than 15,000 drivers in San Francisco
Choise of private vehicle (multiple types) , taxi or shared ride
Lyft - www.Lyft.com. Focus on shared-ride
Slide 28: Traveler Comfort and Convenience
- Car availability without car ownership
- Designed for occasional car users
- Offered by private companies and car manufacturers through membership
- Extensive tech use (mobile applications) for operations
- Reduction in auto ownership
- Increase in transit ridership
- Reduction in fuel consumption/emissions
Author Notes for Slide 28:
Originally a small market (16,000 members in North America in 2002) has increased to 900,000 in 2012 with several companies offering service including auto manufacturers
Web-based or smartphone applications permit the reservation of vehicles at selected locations, payment, and other transactions
Newer options (one way point to point) increase usage and flexibility
Slide 29: Traveler Comfort and Convenience
Carsharing: North American Member Growth
(Extended Text Description: This bar chart illustrates the fast growth of carsharing systems in North America. The vertical y-axis of the chart is titled "Members," starts at 0 where x and y intercept, and goes up to 1,000,000 in intervals of 100,000. Along the horizontal x-axis on the bottom of the chart every year from 2002 on the far left to 2012 on the far right. At each year mark is a vertical yellow bar. At the top of each bar is the number of carsharing members for that year. The data reads from left to right as follows: 2002: 16,007; 2003: 32,647; 2004: 62,348; 2005: 73590; 2006: 118,656; 2007: 211,170; 2008: 318,898; 2009: 377,597; 2010: 516,100; 2011: 639,428; 2012: 907,834.)
Author Notes for Slide 29:
Chart illustrates the fast growth of carsharing systems in North America.
In 2014, 1,228,573 members shared 17,179 vehicles among 24 operators the United States
Shaheen, S. Transportation Sustainability Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, http://tsrc.berkeley.edu, 2016.
Slide 30: Electrified Vehicles
Increasing interest in Electric Vehicles = 3.5% U.S. car sales
- Rising fuel costs
- Environmental concerns
- Improved Technology/Options for Electric Vehicles
- Electric Vehicles (EVs)
- Zero emissions
- Limited range
- Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)
- Plug-In Hybrids (PHEVs)
Author Notes for Slide 30:
Technology improvements and the success of hybrid vehicles prompted the offering of several models by auto manufacturers and power options.
Slide 31: Personal Rapid Transit (PRT)
Concept: Alternative to Conventional Transit in Low Density Areas
- Small driverless vehicles (up to 15 passengers)
- Dedicated tracks/Off-line Stations
- High Capacity (2 seconds Headways)
- Point-to-Point Service/Passenger Comfort
- Limited Implementations
Morgantown PRT system, West Virginia. Courtesy of West Virginia University.
Author Notes for Slide 31:
Concept originated in late 1950s with numerous designs in late 1960s and early 1970s
Only Morgantown system has been implemented - Continuous operation since 1975 with almost 99% reliability
Capacity (min. headway) is constrained by requirement to avoid collision under all cases (brick wall)
Typical speeds of 30 mph (reported speeds up to 150 mph)
Slide 32: Personal Rapid Transit (PRT)
- ULTRA Heathrow airport (2.4 miles, 21 vehicles)
ULTRA PRT system
- 2getthere Abu Dhabi (1.1 mile, 13 vehicles)
2getthere PRT system
Source: Ultra Global PRT 2013
Author Notes for Slide 32:
Recent implementations of PRT
Short distances, small (personalized) vehicles, frequent service Average waiting time is 10 sec. in ULTRA system
Sources: Overview of PRT systems and links to PRT Web sites. Maintained by J. B. Schneider. http://faculty.washington.edu/jbs/itrans/prtquick.htm.
Cottrell W.D., and O. Mikosza, "New-Generation Personal Rapid Transit Technologies: Overview and Comparison, "Transportation Research Record, Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2042, Washington, DC, 2008, pp. 101 -108.
Slide 33: Personal Rapid Transit (PRT)
- Suncheon, South Korea
- Heathrow airport expansion
- "Last Mile" solution for transit systems
- Major employment centers/business parks
- San Jose International Airport-ground access
Author Notes for Slide 33:
Recent implementation: Suncheon, South Korea
Planned expansion in Heathrow airport
Linking large employment centers, campuses with conventional transit systems ("last mile problem")
San Jose Airport circulation/access ground transport
Raney, S., J. Paxson and D. Maymudes, "Design of Personal Rapid Transit Circulator for Major Activity Center: Hacienda Business Park, Pleasanton, California." Transportation Research Record, Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2006, Washington, DC, 2007.
Aerospace Report: http://www.sanjoseca.gov/index.aspx?nid=3706
Slide 34: Vehicles, Internet, Phone, and the Future
Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure Systems
- Active Safety Systems
- Driver Alerts (Queue Warning)
Author Notes for Slide 34:
Previously called Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII) under the exclusive use of Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) as a communications media
Currently connected vehicles (CV) consider both DSRC and cellular networks depending on the applications
Minimal exchange of information: location, heading, speed
Slide 35: Vehicles, Internet, Phone, and the Future
Connected VehiclesQueue Warning
(Extended Text Description: This is an illustration of a queue warning under Connected Vehicles V2V communications. There is a large overhead photograph of a highway interchange. On the upper left side of the photograph is a large gray box with a yellow diamond traffic sign that reads "Slow Traffic Ahead" with a smaller yellow rectangular sign that reads "On Exit." Below the gray box is a large red text box that reads "Auditory & Visual Alerts" written in bold black letters. On the photograph, light yellow lines are drawn on top of all the road travel paths. Green dots are drawn along each yellow path. A thick red line is drawn overtop a major highway on-ramp. A red arrow is pointing at the thick line from the right. Next to the arrow is a text box that reads "Bottleneck Traffic Queue Backup into mainline." At the bottom of the thick red line, it continues as a green dotted line. A green arrow points to the dotted line from the right with a text box next to it reading "Limited Visibility Due to Roadway Geometry." To the left of the green line is a large red text box with bold text titled "Alert Drivers Approaching Upstream" with an arrow point diagonally down to the bottom of the photo on the road.)
Author Notes for Slide 35:
Illustration of queue warning under Connected Vehicles V2V communications
Source: Nowakowski, C., et al., "SafeTrip 21 Initiative: Networked Traveler Foresighted Driving Field Experiment Final Report," Research Report UCB-ITS-PRR-2011-05, University of California Berkeley, June 2011.
Slide 36: Vehicles, Internet, Phone, and the Future
Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure Systems
- SPaT (Signal Phasing and Timing) Message
- Improved traffic signal control
- Dynamic route advisory
- Speed advisory for minimum fuel/emissions
Author Notes for Slide 36:
V2I: Ability to exchange wirelessly information about vehicles (position, speed) and infrastructure
Example: Status of the traffic light: Signal phase and timing (SPaT) Improve safety: avoid red light running
Improve mobility: adaptive control of signals to minimize delay based on real-time demands and O-D patterns
Route advisory in the presence of incident
Given signal status and road characteristics calculate speed to minimize fuel consumption or emissions
Slide 37: Vehicles, Internet, Phone, and the Future
Dynamic Speed Advisory (source: BMW)
V2I Example: SPaT message
(Extended Text Description: Two example images of Dynamic Speed Advisory from BMW and V2I Example: SPaT message, showing general examples of advisory systems inside vehicles indicating "Stop Ahead," for example, and speed recommendations. The following descriptive notes are from the author. Please also see the Author Notes below for additional relevant information for this slide. This figure is for general illustrative purposes only. This image deals with in-vehicle systems that provide information and advice to drivers on speed, following distance and other operating characteristics. They can be described without pictures as systems integrated into the vehicle's instrument panel to provide visual (through different colors) alert and advice to drivers. For example, the recommended speed for minimum fuel consumption is shown as green in the car's speedometer.)
Author Notes for Slide 37:
Examples of V2I applications:
- SPaT message: signal status transmitted to the vehicle
Source: ITS JPO Connected vehicle: www.its.dot.gov/cv_basics
- Dynamic Speed Advisory (BMW experimental system: signal status and recommended speed on driver speedometer)
Source: BMW of North America, "Advanced Traffic Signal Control," Final Report, prepared for the FHWA Exploratory Advanced Research Project, July 2012.
Slide 38: Summary
- Increased usage of mobile devices as data sources and information dissemination
- Multimodal applications
Driver Assistance Systems
- Several in-vehicle systems to improve safety
- Connected Vehicle (CV) technologies (V2V, V2I, I2V)
- Prevent most accidents
- Improved control, incident management, travel information
- Effectiveness depends on penetration rates of CV vehicles
Slide 39: References
- "Traveler Information Systems and Wayfinding Technologies in Transit Systems," Report FTA-MA-26-7998-2011.1, May 2011.
- NCHRP Synthesis 399, "Real Time Traveler Information Systems." Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2009.
- USDOT RITA, "Intelligent Transportation Systems Benefits, Costs, Deployment, and Lessons Learned Desk Reference: 2011 Update." Final Report FHWA-JPO-11-140, September 2011.
- Nowakowski, C., et al., "Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control: Testing Drivers' Choices of Following Distances." California PATH Research Report for FHWA Exploratory Advanced Research Program Cooperative Agreement DTFH61-07-H-00038, January 2011.
Slide 40: References (cont'd)
- Overview of PRT systems and links to PRT Web sites. Maintained by J. B. Schneider. http://faculty.washington.edu/jbs/itrans/prtquick.htm.
- ITS JPO Connected vehicle initiative: www.its.dot.gov/connected vehicle/connected vehicle.htm
- Horrey, W. J., et al., "On-Board Safety Monitoring Systems for Driving: Review, Knowledge Gaps, and Framework." Journal of Safety Research, Volume 43 (1), February 2012, pp. 49-58.
- USDOT RITA, AASHTO Connected Vehicle Infrastructure Deployment Analysis Final Report, FHWA-JPO-11-090, Washington, DC, June 2011.
- International Energy Agency, "Technology Roadmap: Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles." Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2009.
Slide 41: Questions?
- What are the critical characteristics of traveler information systems?
- What are the impacts of multimodal information on mode choice?
- What are the benefits of carsharing?
- What are the key characteristics of PRT systems?
- What are the benefits of CV technology?
Author Notes for Slide 41:
Critical characteristics of traveler information systems:
- Cost (capital and operating)
- Convenience (ease of access and speed)
- Degree of decision guidance and personalization
- Safety of operation
Impacts of multimodal information on mode choice:
- Travelers are willing to another available mode subject to perceived or actual time savings
- Ease of access and parking
- Example Bay Area Demonstration project: 2% shift for travel time savings of 15 minutes, 8% shift for travel time savings of 20 minutes
Benefits of carsharing:
- Car availability without car ownership
- Avoid owning a second vehicle
- May increase transit ridership Reduction in VMT
- Reduction in fuel consumption/emissions
Key characteristics of PRT systems:
- Personalized transit service through small vehicles at short headways
- Dedicated rights of way
- Point to point service
Benefits of CV Technology:
- Communications among vehicles plus the vehicles and the infrastructure transforms the operation of the transportation system
- Most of the accidents will be avoided
- Traffic control will truly adapt to current traffic conditions instead of incomplete point measurements
- Routes will be calculated based on the intended vehicle destination
- Realization of benefits depends on the market penetration of CV vehicles
- Under low market penetration, sophisticated data fusion with other sources is needed
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