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ITE Student Chapter Series

The ITE Student Chapter series provides current ITS information to students at the undergraduate and graduate level within civil engineering/transportation programs. These presentations demonstrate to students the interdisciplinary nature of highways, transit, infrastructure, and other multimodal requirements within roadway systems.

Presentation 2
ITS Technologies: How Do I Prepare For a Career?

Note: The content on this page is a 508-compliant version of the PowerPoint presentation. The PowerPoint file and a PDF of the PowerPoint presentation are available for download to the right.

 

Slide 1: ITS Technologies: How Do I Prepare For a Career?

Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: Image of Slide 1 of this presentation. Across the top is a blue graphic header bar with the ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers logo on the left and a textbox on the right which reads, A Community of Transportation Professionals - Your source for expertise, knowledge and ideas. In the main body of the slide is the text: Developed for the ITS Joint Program Office - ITS Technologies: How Do I Prepare For a Career? ITE Student Chapter Series.)

Developed for the ITS Joint Program Office
ITE Student Chapter Series

 

Slide 2: Technology is the Enabler

  • Advanced Technology provides the Intelligence in ITS

Two stock art images. On the left, an image depicting technology connectivity. On the right, an image depicting a vehicle with graphic overlays showing active vehicle sensors

  • Technologies working together in a System provides the transformative power of ITS

Two stock art images. On the left, stock art illustration showing vehicles, businesses and homes connected to the cloud. On the right, a word cloud illustration containing ideas related to Information Technology such as software and storage

  • The aim is managing and operating the system in new ways to achieve unprecedented levels of efficiency and safety

Image Source: ThinkStock/USDOT

 

Slide 3: Core Disciplines Provide the Foundation

  • Traffic Engineering
  • Transportation Planning
  • System Design and Integration
  • System Management and Operation…All working together

To deliver a transportation system with increasingly seamless integration across all modes

Two example stock art photos: On top, overhead photo of a freeway with various vehicles with overlays indicating active ITS sensors radiating outward around each vehicle. On bottom, stock art photo pf public transit moving at high speed Stock art photo of a woman standing next to a bicycle on the street

Image Source: ThinkStock/USDOT

 

Slide 4: Important ITS Elements

  • Interoperability and Innovation
    • It is challenging yet vitally important to keep these in balance
    • Key Resources
      • ITS Architecture
        • National
        • Regional
      • ITS Standards
        • National
        • International
    • Systems Engineering provides the framework
      • Innovation to provide continually improved solutions
      • Guided by the National Architecture
      • Providing interoperability through standards compliance

Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: Graphic of the "Sausage Diagram" diagram of the National ITS Architecture, which shows a high level interconnect diagram of the 22 subsystems of the National ITS Architecture. The diagram is divided into four main sections, with a series of connecting communications formats. In the upper left corner, the Travelers section (yellow background) has two sub-boxes within it: Remote Traveler Support (top, connected by a line to Fixed Point – Fixed Point Communications) and Personal Information Access (bottom, connected by a line to Wide Area Wireless (Mobile) Communications underneath and Fixed Point – Fixed Point Communications underneath and to the right). At the top right, the larger Centers section (green background) has two rows of sub-boxes within it. Top row, left to right: Traffic Management, Emergency Management, Payment Administration, Commercial Vehicle Administration, and Maintenance & Construction Management. Bottom row, left to right: Information Service Provider, Emissions Management, Transit Management, Fleet and Freight Management, and Archived Data Management. Every one of these sub-boxes under Centers is connected by a line to the Fixed Point – Fixed Point Communications box underneath the Centers section and to the right of the Wide Area Wireless (Mobile) Communications box (under Travelers section). To the lower left there is a Vehicles section (blue background) with a set of diagonally ascending sub-boxes within it (start lower left to the upper right of the box): Maintenance & Construction Vehicle, Transit Vehicle, Commercial Vehicle, Emergency Vehicle, and Vehicle. Each of these sub-boxes is connected by a line to the Wide Area Wireless (Mobile) Communications box above it, and to the vertically-running Vehicle-Vehicle Communications box to the left of the Vehicles section. To the lower right, there is a Field section (orange background) with a set of diagonally descending sub-boxes within it (from upper left to lower right): Roadway, Security Monitoring, Roadway Payment, Parking Management, and Commercial Vehicle Check. Each sub-box is connected by a line to the Fixed Point – Fixed Point Communications box above it, and to the vertically-running Field – Vehicle Communications box to the left (in between the Vehicles and Field sections). See Author Notes below for more information.)

Image Source: National ITS Arch Web site http://local.iteris.com/arc-it/

International ITS Intelligent Transportation Systems Cooperation logo

Image Source: ITS JPO Standards https://www.standards.its.dot.gov/

Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This slide contains a graphic that illustrates the Systems Life Cycle in the form of the standard Vee diagram. The life-cycle steps include the following: Regional Architectures, Feasibility Study / Concept Exploration, Concept of Operations, System Requirements, High-level Design, Detailed Design, Software / Hardware Development Field Installation, Unit Device Testing, Subsystem Verification, System Verification & Deployment, System Validation, Operations and Maintenance, Changes and Upgrades, Retirement / Replacement. An arrow runs down the bottom left of the Vee and is labeled "Decomposition and Definition". The bottom of the Vee has a label that says "Implementation" and a timeline arrow running from left to right is labeled "Development Process". Another arrow runs up the right underside of the Vee and is labeled "Integration and Recomposition".)

Image Source: Systems Engineering Guidebook for ITS https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/cadiv/segb/

 

Slide 5: Important ITS Elements

  • Secure Communications
    • Fiber networks for field devices
    • Wireless communications for mobile devices
      • Connected vehicles will bring an explosion in data
      • 4G LTE and Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) will both have a role
    • Data Security
      • Preventing System Attacks
      • Protecting Data Privacy
Two photos: On the left, stock art image of network cables along with fiber optic cables. On the right, stock art image depicting a traffic camera monitoring busy traffic in the background Stock art image of a young woman using a smartphone 4G LTE Long-Term Evolution logo Stock art illustration of a word cloud depicting the ideas related to Data Loss Prevention, such as information, network, measures, access, security, etc.

Image Source: ThinkStock/USDOT

 

Slide 6: The Key Components of Intelligent Transportation Systems

  • ITS requires many complex subsystems working together as one
  • Intelligent Transportation Systems combine -

Sensing

Stock art image depicting a traffic camera monitoring busy traffic in the background

Communications

Stock art image depicting network cables overlaying fiber optic cables

Information Processing

Stock art image depicting racks of computer systems

to achieve the goal of optimal efficiency and improved safety

Image Source: ThinkStock/USDOT

 

Slide 7: Going a Little Deeper

  • Sensing
    • Field Devices
    • Vehicle Systems
  • Communications
    • Landline
    • Wireless
  • Information Processing
    • Computing Hardware
    • Software Development
    • Network Modeling and Optimization
  • All Aimed at Optimally Managing and Operating the Transportation System

Example photos of ITS technology such as traffic messaging system and overhead photo of a street with various vehicles with overlays indicating active ITS sensors radiating outward around each vehicle

Image Source: Stadt Nurnberg - Copyright Free Image Source: USDOT

Stock art images - on left, a stock art image of a network cable connected to the globe. On the right, two business people on the street holding a sign that reads, Wi-Fi, and holding their mobile devices looking for a signal

Image Source: ThinkStock/USDOT

Stock art graphic image of a microprocessor Overhead photo of a highway with various vehicles on the left eco-lane with overlays indicating active Dedicated Short-Range Communications radiating outward around each vehicle

Image Source: USDOT

 

Slide 8: Field Devices

  • Increasingly sophisticated
  • Will ultimately be integrated with connected vehicles
  • Large Company Example
    • Daktronics - www.daktronics.com/en-us
    • Leader in ITS dynamic displays
    • Started by Electrical Engineering professors
      • First product was electronic voting systems
  • Small Company Example
    • DigiWest
    • Provider of cutting edge Bluetooth data collection
    • Started as an networking and video conferencing services provider
    • Over 350 BlueMAC units deployed in Abu Dabi

Example photos of Daktronics ITS dynamic displays - one photo showing the message Slow for the Cone Zone - CALTRANS, and the other photo showing Speed Limit 45 - Watch for changing conditions

Image Source: www.daktronics.com/en-us

Example photos of DigiWest bluetooth data collection device and photo of Abu Dabi where 350 BlueMAC devices are deployed

Image Source: www.mybluemac.com

 

Slide 9: Vehicle Systems

  • Original Equipment Manufacturer - Increasing scope and complexity
  • Third party equipment - Fills interim gaps, i.e. aftermarket external cameras
  • USDOT/NHSTA
    • Vehicle to vehicle communication - Federal rulemaking in 2016
    • Rear visibility systems will be required on all new vehicles beginning May 2018
    • Congressional action to require crash avoidance system information to be included in NHTSA 5 star safety rating system
  • Connected Vehicles
    • Third party services like DASH are already providing vehicle to server connectivity for personal driver performance feedback
    • Navigant Research predicts that DSRC OEM connectivity will begin to increase rapidly in 2016
    • V2X - Includes vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P), vehicle-to-cyclist (V2C), etc. is part of ultimate vision

 

Slide 10: Communications

  • Field Devices
    • Fiber will rule for -
      • Surveillance Cameras
      • Dynamic Message Signs (will these become obsolete?)
      • Infrastructure-based traffic detection
      • Networked Regional Traffic Management Centers
  • Connected Vehicles
    • DSRC will be the workhorse for V2X
    • 4G LTE
      • Definite - Personal connectivity and communication for systems such as OnStar
      • Possible - Some of the load envisioned for DSRC
  • Data and System Security will be Paramount
    • How vulnerable will wireless communications be?
    • "Hacking of Connected Vehicles Shifts From Theory to Very Scary" (July 24, 2015 - Paul Eisenstein) NBC Business
Two stock art images - on top, a stock art image depicting a traffic camera monitoring busy traffic in the background. On bottom, a stock art image depicting fiber optic cable 4G logo Stock art image of a group of silhouettes of business people in front of a graphic depicting network security and communications

Image Source: ThinkStock/USDOT

 

Slide 11: Computing Hardware

  • There may not be a need for special ITS computing systems

Two stock art images. On the left, stock art image depicting racks of computer systems. On the right, a word cloud illustration containing ideas related to Information Technology such as software and storage

  • However, there will be specialized unit server and client-server network designs

Two stock art images. On the left, a graphic depicting a server in the center, connected to a range of computers on the outside. On the right, a photo of numerous network cables connected to racks of computers

  • IT departments have burgeoned in state departments of transportation

Stock art photo of an example of an Information Technology professional monitoring or servicing a rack of computers

Image Source: ThinkStock/USDOT

 

Slide 12: Software Development

  • Excellent opportunities to help deliver the complex software that will be needed to -
    • Manage truly Big Data streams
    • Data analytics and data fusion
    • Integrate data and management systems across regions and modes
  • ITS market has been lead to date by specialty software/system integrator firms
  • …However, major software and systems market players such as IBM, Cisco, and SAS are beginning to join the game
Stock art image symbolically depicting various cubes of data connecting with a larger collection of cubes of data Stock art graphic word cloud about Software Development, with related concepts such as website, marketing, testing, design, usability, etc. Stock art image showing the concept of a wide variety of network objects and data connecting together, connecting people to computers to content, etc. Stock art image showing various concepts of software development such as responsive design, analytics, connections, ideas, etc., all above a line of many people indicating the human element Stock art image showing a series of graphic lines connecting data to computers, systems, content, files, illustrating the point of data connectivity and data streams Stock art image showing a business person using a touch screen in front of him with various charts and graphs, indicating data connectivity and user interaction with that data

Image Source: ThinkStock/USDOT

 

Slide 13: Network Modeling and Optimization

  • Traffic engineering
    • grounded in traffic flow theory
    • Modeling and optimizing transportation networks

Stock art image illustrates a number of connected lines and arrows which represent the complexity of modeling and optimizing transportation networks, that once data are available, management and control systems will require scalable, computationally fast network traffic flow and optimization models

Image Source: USDOT

  • Multi-level modeling will be essential, i.e. micro, meso, and macro-scale

Example collection of three screen captures that indicate multi-level modeling, micro, meso and macro-scale with charts, maps and 3D traffic modeling. See Extended Description Below.

(Extended Text Description: These figures are example images representing competing goals of how accuracy and computational speed will be managed through multi-level modeling frameworks, in which modeling resolution and complexity increase as we "zoom in" to small subareas and decrease as we move up toward larger, regional networks. The images are examples from PTV Group multi-level modeling tools through their PTV Vision Traffic Suite. One image shows Visem Rubberbanding. The next shows a map analysis tool. The next shows a 3D view of a highway with various vehicles in traffic each direction. For example only.)

Image Source: company.ptvgroup.com/

  • Example PTV Group
    • German company begun in 1979
    • First software was for planning
    • Now a global leader in transportation modeling from planning (Visum), traffic analysis (Vistro), and microsimulation (Vissim)
    • https://www.ptvgroup.com/en/
    • Vissim demo video

 

Slide 14: Do You Feel Prepared?

  • What was the primary aim of the traditional civil/transportation curriculum?
    • Build and maintain the Interstate Highway System

Blank interstate signage

  • The new reality is about efficient and safe management and operation of an increasingly integrated system in a data rich environment

Stock art image of a man driving a car along a time-lapse photo of a freeway, with an overlay of a data-rich environment surrounding his vehicle

  • Curricula are evolving to include ITS and supporting disciplines of systems engineering and database and network fundamentals

Stock art photo of two IT professionals viewing a laptop screen near a rack of computers

Image Source: ThinkStock/USDOT

 

Slide 15: Important Research on the ITS Workforce

  • NCHRP 20-77 Transportation Operations Framework (completed 2009)
    • Defined required competencies for employees at all levels
    • Cataloged training resources
    • Identified gaps in training

Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: Please note the relevant information of this figure is to show the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) project 20-77 defined required competencies for ITS employees at all levels from technician to senior management. Core Functions are listed on the left of this table and the Position Levels are listed on the top of this table. The title of this table is NCHRP 20-77 Operations Framework. The Core Functions on the left include Policy and Strategic Considerations, Program Planning, Systems Development, Project Management, Real-time Operations. The Position Levels on the top of the table include Senior Management, Mid-level, Technician.)

 

Slide 16: Important Research on the ITS Workforce

  • NCHRP 20-86 Attracting, Recruiting, and Retaining Skilled Staff for Transportation System Operations and Management (completed 2011)
    • Provided strategies and resources
    • All 50 states surveyed
    • "Network systems and data communications analysts" category consistently had the highest growth in number of jobs across all states and regions

Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: Please note author's intent for this figure is to show that the category "Network system and data communications analysts" was top in all regions. The full table data is not relevant. The only important info is that the IT-related category was the consensus #1 across the US. The other categories listed are of no relevance to the theme of the presentation.)

 

Slide 17: Resources Available to You

 

Slide 18: Case Study 1

  • Translōc - Advanced Technology for Transit
    • Started in 2002 as an entrepreneurial leap by NC State University computer science grads
    • Original focus was rider service to provide real-time bus location
    • Services have expanded to cutting-edge fleet and system operations management support
TransLoc logo Photo of Translōc founder Josh Whiton in front of the White House logo on the wall behind him Photo of hand holding a mobile phone running a TransLoc app with a map Photo of a mobile phone running a TransLoc app with a map Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: Graphic image showing the logo for the White House with the following text: Champions of Change - Winning the Future Across America. We are excited to announce that TransLoc has been selected by the White House as a Champion of Change for Transportation Technology. Next to the text is a photo of a computer showing a TransLoc screen with a map.)

Image Source: https://transloc.com Used with permission

 

Slide 19: Case Study 2

  • Rhythm Engineering's InSync Adaptive Signal Control System
    • For several decades adoption of adaptive signal control systems had been very slow with largely negative experience
    • The InSync System rolled out in 2007
    • A 2009 study of adaptive control systems had to be revised in 2010 because of InSync's rapid growth

Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This figure contains a bar chart entitled: Systems Still in Operation, and is labeled Figure 16: Many of the systems included in the survey have since been abandoned. The y axis is labeled Number of Systems. The x axis is labeled ACS-Lite, OPAC, RHODES, SCOOT, SCATS. The chart contains the following data, from left to right. Surveyed Systems: 3, 5, 8, 10. Remaining Systems: 1, 2, 1, 3, 8.)

Source: Matt Selinger et al., Adaptive Traffic Control Systems in the United States, September 2009

System Name Installations
InSync 92
SCATS 29
ACS-Lite 14
Centracs 14
SCOOT 13

Source: Laboratory for Adaptive Traffic Operations and Management
http://latom.eng.fau.edu- content is no longer available.

Please see the Extended Text Description below.

(Extended Text Description: This figure contains a bar chart entitled Hingsight Question, and is labeled Figure 18: A majority of the respondents would install the same system again if they had the opportunity. The y axis is labeled Percent Respondents Answering Yes. The x axis is labeled ACS-List, InSync, SCATS. The chart contains the following approximate data, from left to right, 66%, 99%, 69%.)

Source: Matt Selinger et al., Adaptive Traffic Control Systems in the United States: Updated Summary and Comparison, September 2010

Slide 20: Case Study 3

  • SANRAL Design-Build-Operate-Maintain ITS Project
    • Nationwide effort to rapidly deliver a comprehensive, state of the art ITS system for South Africa
    • Innovative contracting mechanism
      • Design, Build, Operate, and Maintain (DBOM)
    • Cary, NC Firm Kimley Horn and Associates is leading the DBOM team a: SANRAL's representative
    • Truly a full featured system, including -
      • Video surveillance
      • Electronic tolling
      • Ramp metering
      • Traveler information
      • Etc.
Logo for The South African National Roads Agency LTD - Creating wealth through infrastructure Kimley-Horn logo with the text Expect More. Experience Better. Two stock photos: On the left, a photo of a highway with extensive traffic. On the right, a photo of a traffic management center with walls of screens and computers

Image Source: Kimley-Horn and Assoc., Inc. Used with permission

Slide 21: Your ITS Career

  • The job opportunities are huge and growing
  • Formal curricula and training are evolving
  • You will need to take charge of your career preparation
  • Long term success will require that you be a lifelong learner
Stock art photo of a woman writing the word Opportunity on the screen Stock art photo of a business man holding a tablet device with various three dimensional images overlaid above the tablet, such as images of data, a world map, a globe, network connectivity, people, and currency signs

Image Source: ThinkStock/USDOT

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For more information, contact:

Michelle Noch
ITS Professional Capacity Building Program Manager
ITS Joint Program Office
U.S. Department of Transportation
202-366-0278
Michelle.Noch@dot.gov

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