ITS in Academics

ITS University Workshop #5
November 8-9, 2017 | Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center in McLean, Virginia

Day 1 Presentation | November 8, 2017

Driving Future Highways: Welcome to the Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

Presenter: Deborah Curtis
Presenter’s Org: Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center (TFHRC)

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Slide 1: Driving Future Highways: Welcome to the Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

[This slide contains an aerial photograph of a highway system with heavy traffic.]

Slide 2: Vision of the Saxton Lab

[This slide contains a cycle diagram detailing the vision of Saxton Lab. The diagram contains four small photographs representing the four categories (Build Relationships with Universities, Researchers, and Industry; Promote Professional Development; Build on Federal Institutional Knowledge; and Develop Technologies and Evaluate Concepts) arranged in a circle. In the middle of the circle, the main vision is depicted (Advance the State of the Art through Transportation Operations Research).]

Slide 3: Saxton Lab Capabilities

[This slide has a flow diagram with three circular graphics representing Cooperative Vehicle-Highway Testbed, Concepts and Analysis Testbed, and Data Resources Testbed. These three circles are arranged in a triangle and connected with dark blue arrows. There are also two rectangles: a continental U.S. map marked with the six Living Laboratory locations, and one marked “External Stakeholders, Applications, and Data.” These two rectangles are connected to the three circles via lighter blue arrows.]

Slide 4: Development Platform for FHWA Innovation Research Vehicles

  • Proof of Concept Vehicles
  • Research Fleet Communications
    • 5.9GHz DSRC, Cellular/LTE, Corrected GPS
  • On-board Technology
    • Connected Vehicle Data Collection and Processing
    • Stock Radar and Ultra-Sonic Sensors
    • Front and rear-facing cameras

[This slide contains a photograph of an SUV parked on the curb of an intersection equipped with electronics mounted to its roof, and a photograph of five cars traveling single file on a road. The photograph has been digitally altered to show each car connected to the next with a link of binary code, which represents vehicle-to-vehicle communication.]

Slide 5: Connected Laboratory

  • State-of-the-Art Simulation and Analysis Tools
  • High-Bandwidth Internet2 Connectivity
  • High-Capacity Data Servers
    • Front and rear-facing cameras

[This slide contains three photographs: (1) three different colored SUVs in a garage, and (2) and (3) photographs of people working in an office with many computers.]

Slide 6: Connected Vehicle Highway Testbed - Intelligent Intersection at TFHRC

[This slide contains a photograph of an SUV driving on a road passing an overhead traffic light and various electronic equipment mounted by the roadside. Various technology elements are labeled: CCTV; DSRC; signalized intersection with SPaT/MAP; fixed time or actuated traffic signal control with pedestrian/bike displays; vehicle pedestrian & bike detection; dedicated Ethernet & Wi-Fi communications; cabinet space with power & communications, available for future research; and Cadillac SRX with OBU, GPS, CAN bus integration.]

Slide 7: MOU with DHS Federal Law Enforcement Training Center

  • Existing
    1. Wire Mounted Traffic Signals
    2. Closed-Loop Test Track
    3. Ramps
    4. Pole-Mounted Traffic Signal
    5. Flat Space Open Testing
    6. Skid Pad
  • Future:
    • DSRC/Wi-Fi
    • V2I Communications

[This slide contains an aerial photograph of the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, showing a driving track, labeled with letters to mark locations of the elements listed in the key above.]

Slide 8: IAA with U.S. Army Aberdeen Test and Evaluation Command

[This slide contains an aerial photograph of a U.S. Army ATEF test area that is marked to show various features: Zones 1 and 2; taxiway; runway; tank access road; crossing roads 1, 2, and 3; ATEF access road; ATEF Operations Center; ATEF Test Vehicle Access; and MedEvac.]

Slide 9: Automation - Example Systems at Each Level (SAEL)

SAEL
Level
Example Systems Driver Roles
1 Adaptive Cruise Control OR Lane Keeping Assistance Must drive other functions and monitor driving environment
2 Adaptive Cruise Control AND Lane Keeping Assistance
Traffic Jam Assist
Must monitor driving environment (system nags driver to try to ensure it)
3 Traffic Jam Pilot
Automated parking
Highway Autopilot
May read a book, text, or web surf, but be prepared to intervene when needed
4 Closed campus driverless shuttle
Valet parking in garage
‘Fully automated’ in certain conditions
May sleep, and system can revert to minimum risk condition if needed
5 Automated taxi
Car-share repositioning system
No driver needed

Slide 10: Automation - Example Systems at Each Level

SAEL
Level
Example Systems Driver Roles
1 Adaptive Cruise Control OR Lane Keeping Assistance Must drive other functions and monitor driving environment
2 Adaptive Cruise Control AND Lane Keeping Assistance
Traffic Jam Assist
Must monitor driving environment (system nags driver to try to ensure it)
3 Traffic Jam Pilot
Automated parking
Highway Autopilot
May read a book, text, or web surf, but be prepared to intervene when needed
4 Closed campus driverless shuttle
Valet parking in garage
‘Fully automated’ in certain conditions
May sleep, and system can revert to minimum risk condition if needed
5 Automated taxi
Car-share repositioning system
No driver needed

Slide 11: Research in Applications for Connected Automation

  • Connected Automation Applications for Public Benefits:
    • Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC): Adds V2V communication to commercial ACC and allows platoons of cars or trucks. Can reduce traffic congestion, reduce fuel consumption, and improve safety.
    • Eco-Approach and Departure (GlidePath): Uses V2I communication from traffic signals to allow vehicles to traverse traffic lights and travel along arterials more efficiently. Can reduce fuel consumption at intersections by 20%
  • FHWA Roles:
    • Develop and analyze concepts with traffic models
    • Test concepts and enabling technologies with Lab prototypes on test tracks
    • Engage automotive OEMs to work toward commercial products
    • Engage state DOTs to develop strategies for deployment

Slide 12: Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control Evolution

Three different types of cruise control

[This slide contains a diagram representing the Current Market Penetration of Cruise Control and the Future of Cruise Control on a large arrow, with three boxes representing the progressive stages of cruise control technology: Standard Cruise Control, Adaptive Cruise Control, and Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control.]

Slide 13: CACC Platooning

[This slide contains a photograph of five vehicles driving along the ATEF test track in a tightly grouped formation, which represents platooning technology.]

Slide 14: Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control Research

  • Create a high-speed and high-capacity managed CACC lane
  • Examine the impacts of different CACC operational strategies
    • Dedicated Lane VS. Shared Lane
    • Car-following headway
    • Platoon size
    • Market penetration levels
    • On-ramp and Off-ramp volume
    • Lane-changing criteria between CACC and GP lane

Slide 15: Build the Simulation Testbed - CACC Site Selection

  • Major urban corridor for commuters
  • Severe congestion problems
  • Four lanes in each direction
  • Existing HOV-2 lane
  • Six interchanges

[This slide contains a map of the Washington D.C. area, with different areas highlighted by green labels and I-66 and the I-495 Beltway highlighted by red labels. A dotted line marks the section of I-66 between Centreville and the Beltway.]

Slide 16: CACC Take-Away Bullets

  • The dedicated lane’s capacity increases from 1650 to 3800 vehicles/hour/lane (0.6s headway)
  • CACC lane has shorter and more reliable travel time, which will promote CACC technology
  • Cooperative lane-changes are important, especially under high speed differentials

Slide 17: GlidePath Prototype Application

Background: Completed AERIS Proof of Concept Testing (Fall 2012)
A field test was conducted at TFHRC with a single vehicle at a single intersection with no traffic

[This slide and the next three slides contain a small, simple graphic of the outline of a green leaf in a silver circle. This slide also contains two other images: (1) an illustration of a road, a car, a traffic light, and various technology prototypes labeled “Eco-Approach and Departure at Signalized Intersections Application,” and (2) a photograph of a black SUV.]

Slide 18: GlidePath Prototype Application Components - Automated Vehicle

Ford Escape Hybrid developed by TORC with ByWire XGV System

  • Existing Capabilities
    • Full-Range Longitudinal Speed Control
    • Emergency Stop and Manual Override
  • Additional Functionality
    • Computing Platform with EAD Algorithm
    • DSRC OBU
    • High-Accuracy Positioning Solution
    • Driver Indicators/Information Display
    • User-Activated System Resume
    • Data Logging

[This slide contains a photograph of a black SUV.]

Slide 19: GlidePath Prototype Application Research Study Findings

  • HMI-based driving provided a 7% fuel economy benefit
  • Partially automated driving provided a 22% benefit
  • Minimizing controller lag is important
  • Precise positioning is important near the intersection stop bar

[This slide contains a diagram depicting scenarios for a traffic intersection and the various phases of traffic behavior, such as Accelerating, Cruising, Decelerating, and Idling. There is a traffic light depicted, as well as a scale indicating speed with graph lines for each phase of behavior.]

Slide 20: To Learn More…

[This slide contains the Saxton Laboratory | Driving Future Highways logo, which includes a stylized curved roadway.]

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For more information, contact:

Michelle Noch
ITS Professional Capacity Building Program Manager
ITS Joint Program Office
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology (OST-R)
U.S. Department of Transportation
202-366-0278
Michelle.Noch@dot.gov

 

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